The answer is in the membrane permeability ie can

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- The answer is in the membrane permeability - i.e. can solutes cross? - Diffusion- permeable membrane and solvent-solute equilibrium - Osmosis- semi permeable membrane- solvent equilibrium 3 types cell junctions Desmosomes attach cells together Found where cells need to adhere tightly together under the stresses of movement e.g. the skin, intestine, and urinary bladder Tight junctions make cell attachments leak-proof Found where tubes and sacs must hold contents without leaking e.g. the skin and the urinary bladder Gap junctions and plasmodesmata allow direct communication between cells Gap junctions = cell-to-cell protein channels that allow passage of hormones, nutrients, and ions In animal cells Plasmodesmata = holes in the walls of adjacent cells forming cytoplasmic connections in plant cells Chapter 6: Energy: forms (potential, kinetic), types (light, heat, electricity, chemical), inefficiency - Chemical energy is the energy that is contained in molecules and released by chemical reactions o Chemical bonds contain potential energy stored energy not being used Breaking chemical bonds releases kinetic energy energy of movement/motion light (movement of photons) heat (movement of molecules) electricity (movement of charged particles) o This kinetic energy creates “work” Chemical reaction, activation energy Endergonic vs. exergonic Reactants vs. products
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Energy-carrying molecules: ATP, properties, recycling Enzymes & catalysts Metabolism control Effects of pH and temperature on enzymes, denaturation Chapter 7: Photosynthesis: definition, overall “equation” Chloroplasts: stroma, thylakoids, chlorophyll/pigments Light reaction vs. Calvin cycle Photorespiration & role of stomata C3, C4, & CAM plants: properties, advantages/disadvantages Chapter 8: Glucose = indirect energy Glycolysis: properties, “equation” Cellular respiration: properties, 3 steps, “equation” Fermentation: properties, 2 kinds
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