Operations elimination of backtracking and

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operations elimination of backtracking and mechanization of handling are features of product layout. These greatly reduce materials handling cost. (ii) Low cost labor and easy in procurement and training Because of the use of special purpose automatic or semi-automatic machines and elaborated tooling product layout can effectively utilize low cost unskilled and semiskilled labor. (iii) Less inspection required A limited amount of inspection at the end or at some critical point in the line is usually sufficient.
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108 (iv) Floor area more productive Minimum aisles. General absence of large banks of, temporary storage and numerous inspection. There is less need for movement of quantities to center and temporary storage. (v) Short processing time Intermediate activities between machine operations such as travel, storage and inspection occurs less frequently. Therefore opportunities for delays will be reduced. Hence the total time for processing product is shortened. (vi) Simplicity and easy production control As long as changes in design of product are held to a minimum and operations are standardized engineering and production planning activities is largely limited to initial program necessary to establish production. At the beginning it is necessary to prepare drawings, list of parts, materials requirement, routing procedures and so on. This simplifies production planning and control problem. Disadvantages of Product layout (i) Higher initial investment In product layout frequently at various work centers more than sufficient capacity will exist. This condition result in an unavoidable duplication of facilities and increases the investment required for product layout. (ii) Production line shut down will occur If a machine fails under product layout there is a shut down of production. Shut down of line can also be caused by a minor shortage of material, employee absenteeism or poor production scheduling. (iii) Supervision more difficult Line is a collection of numerous kinds of machine requiring a wide range of knowledge on the part of supervisor. Foreman’s job involves supervision of diverse activities because each machine requires a knowledge of various setups, kinds of operations and operating feeds. He is also responsible for the quality control of many kinds of jobs being simultaneously processed. He must be also familiar with the maintenance requirements of his equipment. (iv) Inflexibility of facility Equipment under product layout consist of facilities designed to perform special operations. Usually no machine unit of the line is exactly interchangeable in capacity, kind of work performed with any other unit. This characteristic of strict product layout results in inflexibility of facilities. This makes for interruption, costly change over or machine replacement design changes are made.
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