Per cent means per hundred for example 51 x 100 51

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“Per cent” means “per hundred” For example, .51 x 100 = 51% Exact same information presented as a proportion, except the information is taken to a different decimal place
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Ratios 40 A ratio of one number (X) to another (Y) is defined as X/Y The quantity preceding the word “to” is the numerator of the fraction while the other quantity is the denominator The numerator and denominator are completely distinct groups (unlike proportions and percentages) Can take on numbers greater than zero, as a result
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Ratios 41 Ratios are most often reported as “(some number) to 1” Ratio of male to females in our sample of 300 adults: 175/125… 1.4 to 1 1.4:1
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Ratios 42 Provide information that might not be immediately apparent in proportions or percentages, such as the relative size of one group in the sample compared to another More important for scales with more than 2 categories, however
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Ratios 43 Consider the following distribution of a likert scale tapping adult attitudes toward the statement “The President of the U.S. does not pay enough attention to crime prevention”
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Ratios 44
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Ratios 45 Not limited to specific category pairs Can also be used to construct frequencies (the number of cases in a category) of different combinations of groups
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Rate – a special type of ratio 46 Used when a researcher is referring to an ongoing process in a population, such as fertility, mortality, unemployment, or crime For example a birth rate is the number of births (babies) per so many women in a population The numerator consists of newborns whereas the denominator consists of women who are “at risk” for giving birth Reflects not only different categories in numerator and denominator, but also different types of units in each
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  • Fall '14
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