minds to be more stimulated with activities” Nature of Developmental Psychopathology: An Overview ●Normal vs. abnormal development ○Consider age and environment of child ●Developmental psychopathology ○Study of how disorders arise and change with time ○Disruption of early skills can affect later development ○Caution: do not excessively pathologize childhood behavior that is part of normal development Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ●Nature of ADHD ○Central features –inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity ○Associated with numerous impairments ■Behavioral ■Cognitive ■Social and academic problems ●DSM-5 symptom types ○Predominantly inattentive presentation ○Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation
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○Combined presentation ADHD: Facts and Statistics ●Prevalence ○Occurs in approximately 5% of school-aged children throughout the world ○ADHD most commonly diagnosed in the United States, although prevalence appears fairly constant worldwide ○In general population (including adults), 3-9% meet criteria ●Course of ADHD ○Symptoms usually appear around age 3-4 ○Half of children with ADHD continue to have difficulties as adults ○Impulsivity decreases, but inattention remains ●Gender differences: Boys outnumber girls 3:1 ○Girls’ symptoms less likely to be disruptive, less likely to be diagnose Causes of ADHD: Biological Contributions ●Genetic contributions ○ADHD seems to run in families ○Partially explained by copy number variants:extra/missing copies of genes ○DAT1 –dopamine transporter gene has been implicated ○Norepinephrine, GABA and serotonin also implicated ●Neurobiological correlates of ADHD ○Smaller brain volume ○Inactivity of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia ○Abnormal frontal lobe development and functioning ○Endophenotypes in ADHD patients and relatives: poor inhibitory control Causes of ADHD: Psychosocial Contributions ●Psychosocial factors ●ADHD children are often viewed negatively by others > Frequent negative feedback from peers and adults ○Peer rejection and resulting social isolation ○Such factors foster low self-esteem Chapter 15: Neurocognitive Disorders Chapter 16: Mental Health Services: Legal & Ethical Issues
Mental Health and the Law ●Managing care for people with serious mental illness requires a balance between several things: ○Patient’s rights as an individual ○Patient’s individual safety ○Society’s right to safety and security ●These factors may be difficult to determine or at odds Civil Commitment ●Civil commitment laws detail when a person can be legally declared to have a mental illness and be placed in a hospital for treatment ○Involves legal definition of mental illness = a legal concept, typically meaning severe emotional or thought disturbances that negatively affect an individual’s health and safety.
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