minds to be more stimulated with activities Nature of Developmental

Minds to be more stimulated with activities nature of

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minds to be more stimulated with activities” Nature of Developmental Psychopathology: An Overview Normal vs. abnormal development Consider age and environment of child Developmental psychopathology Study of how disorders arise and change with time Disruption of early skills can affect later development Caution: do not excessively pathologize childhood behavior that is part of normal development Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Nature of ADHD Central features –inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity Associated with numerous impairments Behavioral Cognitive Social and academic problems DSM-5 symptom types Predominantly inattentive presentation Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation
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Combined presentation ADHD: Facts and Statistics Prevalence Occurs in approximately 5% of school-aged children throughout the world ADHD most commonly diagnosed in the United States, although prevalence appears fairly constant worldwide In general population (including adults), 3-9% meet criteria Course of ADHD Symptoms usually appear around age 3-4 Half of children with ADHD continue to have difficulties as adults Impulsivity decreases, but inattention remains Gender differences: Boys outnumber girls 3:1 Girls’ symptoms less likely to be disruptive, less likely to be diagnose Causes of ADHD: Biological Contributions Genetic contributions ADHD seems to run in families Partially explained by copy number variants:extra/missing copies of genes DAT1 –dopamine transporter gene has been implicated Norepinephrine, GABA and serotonin also implicated Neurobiological correlates of ADHD Smaller brain volume Inactivity of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia Abnormal frontal lobe development and functioning Endophenotypes in ADHD patients and relatives: poor inhibitory control Causes of ADHD: Psychosocial Contributions Psychosocial factors ADHD children are often viewed negatively by others > Frequent negative feedback from peers and adults Peer rejection and resulting social isolation Such factors foster low self-esteem Chapter 15: Neurocognitive Disorders Chapter 16: Mental Health Services: Legal & Ethical Issues
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Mental Health and the Law Managing care for people with serious mental illness requires a balance between several things: Patient’s rights as an individual Patient’s individual safety Society’s right to safety and security These factors may be difficult to determine or at odds Civil Commitment Civil commitment laws detail when a person can be legally declared to have a mental illness and be placed in a hospital for treatment Involves legal definition of mental illness = a legal concept, typically meaning severe emotional or thought disturbances that negatively affect an individual’s health and safety.
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