PLCP 3410 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE PART I

Organization demanding obedience of believers and

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organization demanding obedience of believers and evolved ideological positions that emphasized, first, the interdependence of the clergy and, ultimately, the right of the leading cleric and his followers to rule” ii. The particularities of the shah and way which he rule 1. Shah was encouraged to despotism y a combination of factors unique to Iran a. Shah’s rescue from Mosaddeq and leftist threats by a US b. Increasing oil income c. Unconditional US military and political support d. Inheritance from the first Shah, whom Mohammad Reza both feared and admired 2. The Shah was incredibly indecisive a. Neither mentally nor organizationally prepared for revolt and had no plausible policy to meet it with
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iii. The major contradiction between an increasingly autocratic political structure and forced, inequitable, and rapid socioeconomic changes that to some degree alienated all classes in society (STRESSED IMPORTANCE) 1. Industrialization period: 1927-1977 a. This time period contained many changes—all its modern infrastructure and education, the disarment and partial settlement of formerly powerful nomadic tribes, entry of women into public life, sensitive personal and family laws, land reform, reduction of power of the clergy and bazaar, rapid population growth, extensive urbanization, the creation of modern armed forces and a governmental and state structure b. Only for a short time after WWII was there meaningful parliamentary consultation and parliamentarians did not represent the general will c. Government didn’t listen to the people and instead relied on the technocrats 2. Another key factor, which explains why the shah lost support from all social classes… a. Iran had no effective counterrevolutionary force b. The usual counterrevolutionary forces were part of the revolution c. The Iranian revolution was revolutionary and counterrevolutionary at the same time because of the White Revolution of the early 1960s and the shah’s reforms of the mid-1970s d. Shah’s reforms that failed i. Land reform was aimed to help peasants by removing big landlords as a class between the shah and the peasants and by bringing more direct state control over cultivators ii. High birthrates, lower deathrates along with increased urban migration of peasants with no land led to overpopulated cities iii. Bazaaris discriminated against in favor of large and often partly governmental businesses iv. Family Protection Act brought about great equality for women, but the clergy did not approve of this. v. Anti-profiteering campaign—discriminatory and fined and jailed small businessmen III. Big and small differences: Predictability and Unpredictability a. We cannot suppose that a cleric in a different country could lead revolution and then the government, nor can we suppose that if a Khomeini-like figure appears elsewhere that he would lead a successful revolt b. A further conclusion: troubles arise not when things are getting worse, but when they are getting easier
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c.
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  • Spring '13
  • QUANDT
  • The Republic, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Pahlavi dynasty, Islamists

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