compounds into ions):Spectator Ions:Net Ionic Equation (omit spectator ions): Generic Net Ionic Equation (for the reaction of any strong acid with any strong base):
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Chem 1035 Chapter 4 36 of 56Weak Acid + Strong Base ReactionsExample: HC2H3O2(aq) + NaOH(aq) → Molecular Equation (H+from acid combines with OH–from base to form H2O):Total Ionic Equation(do NOT dissociate weak acidsinto ions):Spectator Ions:Net Ionic Equation (omit spectator ions): Generic Net Ionic Equation:
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Chem 1035 Chapter 4 38 of 56Strong Acid + Weak BaseExample: HCl(aq) + NH3(aq) →Molecular Equation (add the H+from acid to the weak base):Total Ionic Equation(do not dissociate weak basesinto ions):Spectator Ions:Net Ionic Equation: Generic Net Ionic Equation:
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Chem 1035 Chapter 4 40 of 56TitrationsTitration:Method of analysis in which a solution of known concentration is used to analyze a solution of unknown concentration. One solution is in a buret – the titrant.Indicator: A substance that change color when the titration reaction is complete. The indicator is used to monitor the reaction progress and indicates when the titration reaction is over.Equivalence Point:The point in the titration in which enough moles of one reactant have been added to completely react with the other reactant. The mole ratio in the balanced reaction determines this point.
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Chem 1035 Chapter 4 42 of 56Example Problem – Acid-Base Titration: A total of 32.35 mL of 0.100 M potassium hydroxide is required to neutralize 39.50 mL of sulfuric acid. What is the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution?(M)(V) → moles of KOH →→→ moles of H2SO4→→→ molarity of H2SO4
Chem 1035 Chapter 4 43 of 56Example Problem – Acid-Base TitrationSome antacid tablets contain Mg(OH)2. A tablet weighing 510.0 mg is titrated, requiring 17.60 mL of 0.625 MHCl for complete titration. What is the mass percent of Mg(OH)2in the tablet?
Chem 1035 Chapter 4 44 of 56Space Shuttle Challenger tape:
Chem 1035 Chapter 4 45 of 56OXIDATON-REDUCTION(REDOX) REACTIONSYou are surrounded by redox reactions. When you hear any of the following words, it refers to a redox reaction:Combustion of fuel Digestion of FoodBatteries Metal PlatingBleachingFood spoilageAntioxidants (diseases and aging) CorrosionElectrolysisPlace copper wire in aqueous solution of AgNO3:Cu(s) + Ag+(aq) Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reaction= a reaction involving the exchange ofelectrons between two species
Chem 1035 Chapter 4 46 of 56Every redox reaction has two half-reactions:Red = Reduction=Ag+(aq) + Ag(s)Ox = Oxidation= Cu(s) Cu2+(aq) +