What structure separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities The diaphragm

What structure separates the thoracic and

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•What structure separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities? -The diaphragm. •The abdominal and pelvic cavities? -There’s nothing. •In which body cavity do the organs receive the least protection from physical trauma? -Abdominal cavity.
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Topic 2: The integumentary system Chapter 5 •What are some things that your skin is able to do? -Produces sweat to help the body to cool down, vitamin activation, first line of defense against pathogens, skin grows as we are growing. •Natural phases of wound healing; -Injured tissue and inflammation. -New vessel and tissue remodeling. -Healed wound. 2.1 describe the layers of the epidermis •Integumentary system: Skin and derivatives (sweat and oil glands, hair, nails). •The structure of skin has 2 distinct regions; -1) Epidermis (epithelial layer: Thick, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium). -2) Dermis (connective tissue: vascularized). Epidermal cells 4 types 1) Keratinocytes: •What is the main function of a keratinocyte? -Produces keratin, the fibrous protein that helps give the epidermis its protective properties. •What is the lifespan of a keratinocyte? -25-45 days. •What is epidermal growth factor? -A peptide produced by various cells throughout the body. 2) Melanocytes: •Produce melanin, deepest layer of epidermis, numerous branching processes for transfer of melanosomes to adjacent keratinocytes. •Function? -Produce pigment in order to protect the genetic information from the UV radiance. Increase the production of melanocytes to protect us from getting skin cancer from the UV damage. 3) Dendritic cells (Langerhans’ cells):
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•Star- shaped, migrate to epidermis from bone marrow, macrophages activate bone immune system. 4) Tactile epithelial cells (Merkel cells): •At epidermis and dermis boundary, they have a disc-like sensory nerve ending touch receptors. •What is thick skin versus thin skin? -If you include the dermis, the thickest skin is on the upper back. Covers areas subject to abrasion, the palms, fingertips, soles of the feet. In thin skin the strata are thinner. •Which layer is found only in thick skin? -Stratum lucidum (clear layer), 2-3 rows of clear, flat dead keratinocytes. Stages of skin: 1) Stratum corneum 2) Stratum lucidum 3) Stratum granulosum 4) Stratum spinosum 5) Stratum basale 6) Dermis 2.2 Describe the layers of the dermis •Cell types typical of CT: -Fibroblasts, macrophages, some mast cells, WBCs. •Semi-fluid matrix heavily embedded with collagen, elastin and reticular fibers. •Richly supplied with nerve fibers, blood and lymphatic vessels. •Hair follicles, oil and sweat glands.
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Papillary layer •Interwoven mat of areolar CT fibers interspersed with blood vessels. •Dermal papillae: Contain capillaries and nerve endings for touch and pain. Indent overlaying epidermis. Sweat glands. •On palms of hands, soles of feet, dermal papillae overlie dermal ridges to give us epidermal ridges known as friction ridges.
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