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10 Global Duopolistic Competition between Fujifilm and Kodak: Corporate Strategy and Business±Government Relations Yoshi Tsurumi and Hiroki Tsurumi INTRODUCTION Early in December 1997 the World Trade Organization (WTO) ruled unanimously in favour of Fujifilm and the Japanese government against Kodak and the US government. It was the first loss for the United States, which had won its six previous cases at the WTO. It was Japan's first win. The dispute between Kodak and Fujifilm went back to Kodak's legal action against Fujifilm and the Japanese gov- ernment. In late May 1995 the US Trade Representative Office (USTR) accepted Kodak's complaint against Fujifilm and Japan `Super 301' of the US Trade Act of 1988. Super 301 enables the US president to invoke unilateral trade sanctions against foreign coun- tries accused of discriminating against US goods and services. The USTR and Kodak charged that Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and Fujifilm had conspired to restrict Kodak's access to Japan's distribution outlets of photographic films and papers. Fujifilm and MITI denied all charges.