They found ships for non-Jews. When it came to the Jews though they didn’t help and uses the ex of how the US Army authorities in North Af offered in 1943 to take refugees to the US on returning military ships but the state and War departments blocked the plan. 2.The claim that Axis govs planted agents among the refugees. Said this was overemphasized b/c could’ve been handled through security screening.3.Nondiscrimination-by helping the Jews they “would improperly single out one group for assistance when many ppl were suffering under Nazi brutality. Equating the genocide of the Jews w/the oppression imposed on other Europeans. In US defense though the Polish gov in exile counted the Jews as Poles so by lumping them together it makes it harder to see that Jews are a special case. 4.It would detract from the military effort and thus prolong the war. He says that although this is justified argument in many cases there were many things they still could have done. And the war effort ws bent from time to time to help non-Jews. 2. Eva Fogelman: Conscience and Courage
•While Wyman deals with the choices the Allies made and their responsibility, Fogelmen deals with the individual people who chose to rescue Jews. She says that these people were not all saints, but rather many of them were sneaks, thiefs, and people w/flaws. She uses the ex of Oskar Schindler who was a manipulator and a seasoned briber and envoy Raoul Wallenberg who was a habitual liar and shameless forger. She said that despite the penalties of abetting Jews, these people chose to act b/c they felt it was the natural thing to do—they saw these people as human beings. They had a core of firmly held inner values which included an acceptance of ppl who were different and believed what they did or did not do mattered. Their concept of right and wrong was so much a part of who they were. This clear sense of rt and wrong was called “autonomous morality” by Jean Piaget, child-development expert. This morality derives from the mutual respect that peers feel for one another. These moral rescuers had a strong sense of who they were and what they were about. Their values were self-sustaining and not dependent on the approval of others. To them, what mattered most was behaving in a way that maintained their integrity. •Summary of character traits of individuals who tended to rescue Jews:1.Individuality2.Independence3.History of altruistic behavior—people who helped other ppl in the past4.Perception of acts of rescue as “ordinary”—fogelman stresses that it wasn’t a matter of preplanning, but just obvious of what had to be done.5.Unplanned6.Understand jews as individuals like any other—but even at times anti-Semites helped b/c most of them were religious and even though belived the “Jews killed Christ” and were being rightly punished, they still felt to X duty to “love thy neighbor.” •She pts out that these moral rescuers rarely iniated action, but only helped after being asked to help or after an encounter w/suffering and death that awakened their consciousness.
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- Spring '07
- Christopher Browning, Mr. Levi