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Board of Indian Commissioners(1)Inexperienced church-appointed agents quickly encountered obstacles (2)Frustrated, the federal govt began ignoring the church and making their own appointments for agents in 1880s4.Red River War (1874-1875) and Skeleton Canyon (1866)
a)Defiant Natives continued resistance in the 1870sb)On the southern plains, native raids in the TX panhandle set off the Red River War(1)In a winter campaign, regular army troops destroyed Native supplies and effectively ended Native American independence in the Southc)In the Southwest, the Apaches fought an intermittent guerrilla war until their leader, Geronimo, surrendered in 1886 at Skeleton CanyonC.Custer’s Last Stand1.1868, the Great Sioux Reservehad been set aside for the Sioux 2.1873, Sioux in ND, SD, MT, and WY managed concessions of staying on their lands by playing local officials against the federal govt 3.The non-treaty Sioux intimidated whites with raids, and found a powerful leader in Lakota Sioux chief, Sitting Bull4.1874, Gen Shermansent Col George Custerinto the Black Hills of SD a)Custer was young, and since his days as a young Civil War officer, a celebrityb)Custer was supposedly sent to find a location for a new fort, but his real objective was to confirm rumors of gold in the Black Hills By confirming so in a report, a stampede of pioneers migrated out to find goldc)The gold stampede gave the army justification for interfering with Natives Custer was in facta part of a deliberate army plan to force concessions from the Sioux5.Nov 1875, negotiations broke down because the natives asked too high a price due to a mistranslation6.Jan 31, 1876, President Grant and his generals decided to hunt down and take by force all natives not inside reservationsa)June 25, underestimating the Natives’ resistance, Custer, with 209 men, recklessly advanced along the Little Bighorn(1)Custer’s men were wiped out b)June 27, cavalry attacks came upon the same fate, and all of Custer’s men lay deadc)Some Americans criticized Custer’s leadership or the federal policy, but most supported the govt even more 7.The troops harassed supplies for 5 years, leading to Sitting Bull’s surrender in 1881 a)Similar measures were used against Chief Joseph(Nez Perces Indians) and against Cheyennes8.1878, Chief Dull Knifeled his survivors north in an attempt to join the Sioux, but was intercepted and imprisoned in Fort Robinsona)After the army denied their request to stay near traditional lands, Dull Knife led a suicidal escape, shooting guards and breaking to freedom Dull Knife and half of his people were gunned down9.Sporadic resistance continued, but these brutal tactics sapped Natives’ will to resistD.“Saving” the Indians1.A growing number of Americans were outraged by massacres and flagrant violations of Indian treatiesa)The Women’s National Indian Rights Association, founded in 1883, and other groups took up the cause b)Helen Hunt Jacksonpublished her A Century of Dishonor(1881) to rally public opinion against the govt’s broken treaties2.
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Native Americans in the United States, federal govt, Cheyenne, Sioux