PSYC 213 Winter 2018 Malka A-r resemblance” among games. Family resemblance = similarity.Concepts are better understood as clusters of attributes (not one thing to define a concept). No attributes need to present in all concepts category members. We use similarities btwn things rather than explicit rules to figure out a concept. Typicality effect: more typical is easier to recognize. The levels of concepts : a. Inclusivity.vertical dimension: general to specific. Favor the basic level of concepts b. Graded structure. Horizontal dimension: distinguishes btwn conceots at the same level of inclusiveness. How well a member represents a concept. Some mebers are better than other: the idea of prototype. our culture determines concepts: there is stability in the prototype structure across people from similar culture. Study: asked people to make a typicalty rating of items ( what is a good example of fruit ? apple , cheery, orange. Found a near perfect (0.9) corr. Among ppls ratings from the same place. A problem with prototypes: they do not account for context determining what concept category smtg belongs to. “Is this a musical instrument” depends on where you are. Embodied view of concepts: Human concepts are embodied: concepts are fromed to facilitate successful interaction with the nnvironment. Concepts make use of sensory-motor, emotional and social cognition capacities of our body-brain system. Facilitating goals: Ad-hoc categories. : “think of smtg that can catch on fire”.Ad hoc categories are categories invented for a specific purpose, particular occasion or goal. Similar characteristics (ex grated structure) to other basic prototype categories. Indicates we can use concepts flexibly (think creatively) Alternative uses task: name all the uses for a brick…..Gestures to access knowledge : do gestures affect the way ppl mentally represent concepts?