Use this to test what the concept is over trials Partist strategy pick out

Use this to test what the concept is over trials

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--- Wholist strategy: for an instance, hypothesize that all attributes are part of the concept. Use this to test what the concept is over trials ---Partist strategy: pick out small subset of a concept to form hyp abt what makes up that concept. If its disconfirmed, pick new attribute . this is heavier burden on memory. Issues with rule-based approaches-some concepts don’t have explicit rukes (ex student or bachelor). Some concepts are learned implicitly and are not necessarily explicitly tested. Category memeberships don’t always have clear boundaries ( you can be “kind of” part of a category.some fuzzy boundaries: is chiken a farm animal or a bird is a sled a toy or a vehicle. Prototype theory: ELEANOR ROSCH Deviates from the rule wbased approach.donceots are formed by how we interact with our environment and info we encounter. Our conceptual knowledge is learned not by rules but by a “more or less” principleWITTGENSTEIN: what is a game? concepts do not have rukes or a single essence or idea. What is common mong the concept “games”? no single attribute define the concept of a game, but there is a “family
PSYC 213 Winter 2018 Malka A-r resemblance” among games. Family resemblance = similarity.Concepts are better understood as clusters of attributes (not one thing to define a concept). No attributes need to present in all concepts category members. We use similarities btwn things rather than explicit rules to figure out a concept. Typicality effect: more typical is easier to recognize. The levels of concepts : a. Inclusivity.vertical dimension: general to specific. Favor the basic level of concepts b. Graded structure. Horizontal dimension: distinguishes btwn conceots at the same level of inclusiveness. How well a member represents a concept. Some mebers are better than other: the idea of prototype. our culture determines concepts: there is stability in the prototype structure across people from similar culture. Study: asked people to make a typicalty rating of items ( what is a good example of fruit ? apple , cheery, orange. Found a near perfect (0.9) corr. Among ppls ratings from the same place. A problem with prototypes: they do not account for context determining what concept category smtg belongs to. “Is this a musical instrument” depends on where you are. Embodied view of concepts: Human concepts are embodied: concepts are fromed to facilitate successful interaction with the nnvironment. Concepts make use of sensory-motor, emotional and social cognition capacities of our body-brain system. Facilitating goals: Ad-hoc categories. : “think of smtg that can catch on fire”.Ad hoc categories are categories invented for a specific purpose, particular occasion or goal. Similar characteristics (ex grated structure) to other basic prototype categories. Indicates we can use concepts flexibly (think creatively) Alternative uses task: name all the uses for a brick…..Gestures to access knowledge : do gestures affect the way ppl mentally represent concepts?
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