Bio Exam Notes Section 3.docx

O less need to produce offspring to care for elderly

Info icon This preview shows pages 5–7. Sign up to view the full content.

o less need to produce offspring to care for elderly parents (who have old age social  security or are rich enough to pay for their own care. o greater family dispersal, offspring move away from their parents who then become less  available as grandparents to assist with child care. o delayed family starts because of taking time out for education o greater availability of cheap and effective birth controls methods. o effects of technology and western lifestyle on health i.e. chemical pollutants causing  reduced sperm count and other reproductive abnormalities. o status anxiety - maintaining the social and economic standing of the family name is  harder to do when the estate must be divided among many offspring. (9) In BIOL350 we considered evolutionary hypotheses for why polygyny has been the dominant model for marriage throughout human history. Describe these hypotheses and discuss the hypotheses that we considered in BIOL350 regarding where the culture of monogamy came from. Popular where there is a wide variation in male wealth: Polygyny with bridewealth (male choice and competition for mates): in this system, males pay  bridewealth to secure rights to sexual access to a woman, to compensate her natal family or  lineage for her lost labor, as well as to make alliances with other groups. The wealthiest males  can pay the most bridewealth in buying daughters of other men, and so have the most wives. Polygyny with female choice: the optimal female strategy is to mate with the wealthiest available male, in sequence, the first female choosing should mate with the wealthiest male, the second  choosing with the next wealthiest male and so on. The critical factor determining whether  monogamy or polygyny predominates, is the amount of variation in the distribution of these  resources under male control. Under conditions of little or no resource variation, females should  choose any male who does not have a mate.  Monogamy is best mating strategy from a female perspective, because she has exclusive claim to resource under her mate's control. However, if male controlled resources are varied, polygyny is  the optimal female strategy. This strategy is explained by the concept of a polygyny threshold,  that is, appoint when a female considers the nth wealthiest unmated male and sees a superior 
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

option in mating with a wealthier, already mated male because ne half of the total resources he  controls exceed the total resources controlled by unmated poorer males. Once this threshold is  reached, it is better for females to mate polygynously rather than monogamously.
Image of page 6
Image of page 7
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern