Mento et al 1992 found that the amount of valence

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Mento et al. (1992) found that the amount of valence attached to goals was negatively associated with goal level - people with high goals expected less satisfaction with each possible performance level than people with low goals. However, difficult goals were associated with higher instrumentality - that is, achieving higher goals was more associated with a series of specific outcomes (e.g., showing competence, developing ability). Tubbs et al. (1993) used expectancy theory to explain the effect of assigned goals. They focused on the patterns or functions associated with expectancy, instrumentality, valences, and motivational force when an individual evaluates a continuous variable (like task performance). Tubbs et al. (1993) hypothesized that assigned goals affect these functions, thereby affecting performance, but found only limited support for their hypotheses. Their most significant finding is the nonlinearity of the functions, a finding consistent with Naylor, Pritchard, and Ilgen's (1980) theory of behavior in organizations. The Naylor et al. (1980) theory forms the basis for the final set of studies we review. Subjective expected utility theories and decision biases. The final set of studies seeks to integrate expectancy (and expectancy-like) theories with decision theory. Although their focus on motivation earns them inclusion in this chapter, to some extent expectancy theory simply provides a forum for investigating predictions of decision theory. Three studies focus on this integration of decision making research and subjective expected utility theories: Sawyer (1990), Switzer and Sniezek (1991), and Henry and Strickland (1994). Sawyer (1990) considered the effect of risk and uncertainty on individuals' judgments of contingencies (in this case, the relationship between acts and products from Naylot et al.'s, 1980, theory of motivation) and their decisions to allocate time to an activity. When contingencies were learned under uncertain conditions, individuals judged contingencies to be more linear than they
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actually were. Additionally, individuals preferred to allocate resources to the more certain contingencies. In conditions where functions were equally uncertain, individuals used the optimal allocation rule. Sawyer's (1990) study provides one of the few empirical tests of Naylot et al.'s (1980) theory. His results suggest the theory, which is a refinement and extension of expectancy theory, may not be any more successful in predicting resource allocations or behavior in uncertain environments than the traditional expectancy theory approach. The second study, Switzer and Sneizek (1991), also used the Naylor et al. (1980) framework. Switzer and Sneizek (1991) examined the effect of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic on judgments of contingent relations (again, the act to product contingency) and on actual allocations of time and effort. Their results demonstrated that both irrelevant information (e.g., experiment number) and relevant information (e.g., assigned goals) act as anchors and influence contingency judgments. However, these anchoring effects were not related to subsequent behavior. There were no differences in the number of products produced or the speed of task-
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