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DSST Anthropology as a Discipline 2

For example a persons genotype for hair color might

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For example, a person's genotype for hair color might be one gene for brown eyes from the mother, and one gene for blue eyes from the father. The person's phenotype would be brown eyes. Question 12 of 55 Gregor Mendel showed (1) that heredity is transmitted through factors (now called genes) that do not blend but segregate, (2) that parents transmit only one-half of the genes they have to each child, and they transmit different sets of genes to different children, and (3) that, although brothers and sisters receive their heredities from the same parents, they do not receive the same heredities (an exception is identical twins). Your Answer: Explanation Mendel thus showed that, even if the eminence of some ancestor were entirely the reflection of his genes, it is quite likely that some of his descendants, especially the more remote ones, would not inherit these "good" genes at all. In sexually reproducing organisms, humans included, every individual has a unique hereditary endowment. Question 13 of 55 Mendel's first principle of genetics states that the sex cell of a plant or animal may contain one factor (allele ) for different traits but not both factors needed to express the traits. Your Answer: Explanation In essence, each parent's sex cell contributes one factor for a trait. The trait (i.e. eye color) cannot be expressed without the sex cells from both parents, which combine to give the required two genes in a genotype. A variation of a gene is known as an allele. For example, the gene for eye color has several alleles--blue, brown, black, hazel, etc. . Question 14 of 55 Mendel's second principle of genetics states that characteristics are inherited independently from other characteristics. Your Answer:
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Explanation For example, a trait for blue eyes is not dependent on the trait for height within an individual organism. A person gets genes which determine eye color, as well as genes which help determine height--they are independent of each other. Question 15 of 55 Mendel's third principle states that each inherited characteristic is determined by two heredity factors/genes, one from each parent, which determines whether a gene will be dominant or recessive . Your Answer: Explanation Also known as the law of Dominants and Recessives (Mendel's third principle). Certain genes are dominant, and others are recessive. If a child receives a brown eyed gene from one parent, and a blue eyed gene from the other, he will have brown eyes. Why? Because brown eyes is a dominant gene, and blue eyes are recessive. It would take two blue eyed genes (one from each parent) to have blue eyes. Question 16 of 55 In biology, adaptation is the process by which an animal or plant becomes fitted to its environment ; it is the result of natural selection acting upon heritable variation. Your Answer:
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For example a persons genotype for hair color might be one...

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