oFructose promotes advanced glycation end products, or AGEs more than glucose doesMaltoseoA disaccharide composed of two glucose molecules.
oA sweetening agent derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch. Starch is linked together with a whole long series of glucose molecules, and this is just from partial hydrolysis. LactoseoMilk sugaroMade of two monosaccharides linked together, galactose + glucose.oA lot of the world cannot digest lactose, because of a lactase deficiency. Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down lactose. oLactase deficiency: 65% of the world's population. North American blacks, about 75%, North American whites, about 25% percent, cannot digest milk products very well.oIn northern climates, people can generally digest milkoHydrogen test: someone breathes into a balloon before and after ingesting a substantial amount of milk. Hydrogen is produced in significant quantities for people who have trouble digesting milk. oFix: take lactase supplements, like Lactaid. Or by lactose reduced products.There is a product on the market called Beano that prevents gas from beans. It is an enzyme, and works quite well. It is derived from aspergillus niger (this particular bacterium requires zinc).oThe enzyme is alpha-galactosidase. It breaks down a variety of small sugars that create gas from beans. When larger molecules are broken down in starch, it’s called amylose, and it is broken down by the enzyme amylase. AmylopectinoAnother starch-like moleculeoEasier to digesto
oThere are many different possibilities for breaking this down because the enzyme is sucha substantial one. oProduced in the pancreas and salivary glandsoIf you chew a piece of bread longer than usual, you will experience a sweet taste as amylase breaks down the starch to glucose.Fibre:oCellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin (not digestible)oLinked to contradictory conditions: Constipation and diarrheaDiverticulosisPockets in the colonPossibly cancer for too little fibreHeart disease for too much fibreoMetamucil, a natural product from psyllium fibre is popular. The fructose/glucose composition of different caloric sweetenersoHigh fructose corn syrup (HFCS): 42/58oSucrose: 50/50oHoney: not quite 50/50oGrape juice HFC: 55/45oApple juice: substantially fructoseoAgave nectar/ pear juice: extremely high in fructoseoA cup of tomatoes: 2.5 g fructoseoCan of soda: 23 g of fructoseoSuper-sized soda: 62 g of fructoseoDiet soda: 0 g fructoseJuices contain the same amount of sugar as soda, although there are some benefits like the vitamin C and some fibre. Water and tea is the best bet.There’s another reorganized version of amylopectin called an Amadori product. Can engage in the same water loss with another chain from a protein. Two H’s and an O (water) connect the molecule together. Now what we have is two protein chains connected to what was a sugar molecule and this is called the advanced glycation end product. It’s the linking up of protein units with a sugar unit.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 36 pages?