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Sources: T. Simonite, “How a Database of the World’s Knowledge Shapes Google’s Future,” MIT Technology Review, January 27, 2014; S. Perez, “Google’s Knowledge Graph Now Being Used to Enhance Search Results,” TechCrunch, January 22, 2014; A. Orlowski, “Google Stabs Wikipedia in the Front,” The Register, January 13, 2014; G. Kohs, “Google’s Knowledge Graph Boxes: Killing Wikipedia?” Wikipediocracy, January 6, 2014; J. Lee, “OK Google: ‘The End of Search as We Know It’,” Search Engine Watch, May 16, 2013; A. Isidoro, “Google’s Knowledge Graph: One Step Closer to the Semantic Web?” eConsultancy, February 28, 2013; C. Newton, “How Google Is Taking the Knowledge Graph Global,” CNET, December 14, 2012; T. Simonite, “Google’s New Brain Could Have a Big Impact,” MIT Technology Review, June 14, 2012. Questions1. Refer to the definition of a relational database. In what way can the Knowledge Graph be considered a database? Provide specific examples to support your answer.2. Refer to the definition of an expert system in Plug IT In 5. Could the Knowledge Graph be considered an expert system? If so, provide a specific example to support your answer.3. What are the advantages of the Knowledge Graph over traditional Google searches?chapter03.indd 809/7/2016 9:27:12 PM
3.2 The Database Approach 81with other fields containing the song’s title, its price, and the album on which it appears. A logical grouping of related records is called a data file or a table. For example, a grouping of the records from a particular course, consisting of course number, professor, and students’ grades, would constitute a data file for that course. Continuing up the hierarchy, a logical grouping of related files constitutes a database. Using the same example, the student course file could be grouped with files on students’ personal histories and financial backgrounds to create a student database. In the next section, you will learn about relational database model.The Relational Database ModelA database management system (DBMS)is a set of programs that provide users with tools to create and manage a database. Managing a database refers to the processes of add-ing, deleting, accessing, modifying, and analyzing data stored in a database. An organiza-tion can access the data by using query and reporting tools that are part of the DBMS or by using application programs specifically written to perform this function. DBMSs also provide the mechanisms for maintaining the integrity of stored data, managing security and user access, and recovering information if the system fails. Because databases and DBMSs are essential to all areas of business, they must be carefully managed.There are a number of different database architectures, but we focus on the relational database model because it is popular and easy to use. Other database models (for example, the hierarchical and network models) are the responsibility of the MIS function and are not used by organizational employees. Popular examples of relational databases are Microsoft Access and Oracle.