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Robert Gibbon Johnson: an american that travelled in europe saw that europeans ate tomatoes and survive and prosper; thought it was a shame they weren’t eaten in NATomatoes were believed to be toxic in NATomatoes are in the same botanical family as the Belladonna plant; therefore tomatoes thought to be toxicby associationJohnson invited the public in Salem to watch him eat tomatoes; when he didn’t die tomatoes eating in NA beganSince then we’ve learned that the tomato is a very healthy fruitContains a variety of antioxidants: lycopeneLycopene: reduces the risk of macular degeneration; keeps people healthyKetchup contains lycopene and is used by advertisers to say it MAY reduce prostate cancerIn 1850, English physician Arthur Hasall saw that a steel fork became coated w copper when he mashed gooseberries. The berries had been adulterated w copper to make them green.In 1900s, chalk was added to watered down milk, arsenic and boric acid sprinkled on meat and fish to retard spoilage and lard was added to “extend” butter.In the “Good Old Days”:Copper salts were added to vegetables to make them look more greenPlaster of Paris (CaSO4): was added to break instead of flour because it was cheaperMeat was preserved w Arsenic Oxide (As2O3): arsenic will kill bacteria making it a good preservative, but itwill kill people tooTea was extended by adding indigo: indigo has a darkish color when dissolved in water and was pretty cheapVideo 2Unintentional ToxinsHave the idea that our food is contaminated w pesticidesThere are pesticide residues on food, but just because a chemical is there doesn’t mean it’s doing anythingPesticide Residues are there in trivial levels, not a big concernPeople overestimate rare risks and underestimate common risksPesticides are a problem when they are improperly usedAldicarb: pesticide that is used on cucumbers15 year old boy got sick because farmer who used aldicarb didn’t dilute it properlyToo high concentration of aldicarbAt a picnic in the US, about 14/20 people got sick w eye twitching, sweating, diarrhea, etc.Problem: Black pepper in cabbage Salad; but pepper wasn’t actually pepper it was found to be granules of 13.7% aldicarb
Mercury in fishMercury comes from burning coal: gets into the air, gets washed down, mercury reacts w bacteria in water, converts to methylmercury, and that is found in fishProblem for pregnant women: can hurt the embryoPregnant women should stay away from swordfish, tuna fish, shark (large fish that eat smaller fish and are then the concentration of mercury chain)Naturally occurring ToxinsThe natural world is filled w poisons.In Socrates time:Coniine (chemical): found in hemlockGreeks used to carry out executions by asking victims to drink the juice of the hemlock plantPotatoes:Green coloring in potatoes is chlorophyllWhen chlorophyll is produced it mean potatoe is trying to sprout, when potato is trying to sprout is produces natural insecticides like solanine