Oxidation and reduction in organic chemistry

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Oxidation and Reduction in Organic Chemistry hydrogenation is a reduction Inorganic—oxidation is loss of electrons Organic—oxidation is loss of electron density at carbon. That is, having a more electronegative atom in the bond. Oxidation: forming C-O, C-N, C-X and breaking C-H bonds Reduction: forming C-H and breaking C-O, C-N and C-X bonds
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5 Rules for calculating oxidation number: 1. Write the Lewis structure with lone pairs 2. Assign the electrons in the covalent bond to the more electronegative atom 3. Split the electrons equally if between identical atoms 4. Take the total number of electrons and subtract from the number of valence (neutral) electrons C O H H H H C H H H H O Carbon: 4-6 = -2 Oxygen: 6-8 = -2 Carbon Oxidation State (number) Compound Ox. State CH 4 -4 CH 3 OH -2 0 2 CO 2 4 H H O H OH O Oxygen will end up being -2 (except in peroxides where it is -1) and H will be +1 (except when bonded to metals where it is -1) (4 – 8) (4 – 6) (4 – 4) (4 – 2) (4 – 0)
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6 Reactions of Alkenes High electron density Low electron density Electrostatic map shows high electron density at double bond => π bonds can act as weak nucleophiles and bases CH 3 H 3 C H 3 C C CH R R R R E N R R R R E N R R R R
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