# Uncertainty the is a numerical indicator of how

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The ______ ______is a numerical indicator of how widely disbursed the possible valuesof a variable are around its expected value.
To calculate a standard deviation of a distribution, you must first fine the expected ______, or mean, of the distribution.
If a distribution is ________, then the values observed have a 95% probability of being within two standard deviations from the mean.
When comparing investments that have different means, the _________ ______ __________ measures the relative riskiness of each investment and is a better indicatorof risk than the standard deviation.
The _________the coefficient of variation, the lower the relative riskiness of an investment.
To compare the degree of risk among distributions of different sizes, we should us a statistic that measures ______ riskiness.
The coefficient of variation represents the standard deviation’s ______ of the mean.
The coefficient of variation provides a standardized measure of the degree of risk that can be used to ______ alternatives.
The Coefficient is used instead of the standard deviation to compare distributions that have means with different values because the CV ______ for the difference, whereas the standard deviation does not.
__________ risk is the degree of uncertainty about operating income (EBIT).
The degree of uncertainty about operating income depends on the ______ of operating income.
The more volatile a company’s sales, the more ______ risk the firm has.
Sales ______ affects business risk.
The tendency of fixed expenses to magnify business risk is called _____ _____.
The greater the fixed expenses, the greater the ______ in operating income for a given change in sales.ChangeCapital-intensive companies have ______ fixed expenses, service companies often have relatively low fixed expenses.
The additional volatility of a firm’s net income caused by fixed interest expense of debt financing is called________ risk.
When companies borrow money, they incur ______ charges that appear as fixed expenses on their income statements.
The phenomenon whereby a change in operating income causes net income to change by a larger percentage because of the presence of fixed financial costs is called ____________.
Financial risk is measured by ______ the difference between the volatility of net income when there is no interest expense and when there is interest expense.
Firms that have only ______ financing have no financial risk.
Financial risk, which comes from borrowing money, ______ the effect of business risk and intensifies the volatility of net income.
A __________ is any collection of assets that are managed as a group.