B larger skulls demanded larger birth canals c

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Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century
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b. Larger skulls demanded larger birth canals c. Natural selection has struck a balance between the structural demands of upright posture and the tendency toward increased brain size d. Dentition and Diet a. It was adaptively advantageous for early hominins to have large back teeth and thick tooth enamel for their gritty and tough vegetation i. The churning, rotary motion associated with this chewing also reduced the canines ii. The front teeth are much sharper in apes than in early hominins 1. The apes use their sharp teeth to pierce fruits iii.Massive back teeth, jaws, and facial and cranial structures suggest a diet demanding extensive grinding and powerful crushing b. Hunting- With changes in the types of food consumed, the burden on the chewing apparatus eased i. Chewing muscles developed less and supporting structures (jaws and cranial crests) were reduced e. Tool traditions ******** i. Oldowan Pebble Tools 1. Represent the world’s oldesst formally recognized stone tools 2. Flakes are the most common Oldowan tools 3. Found by Mary and Louis Leaky in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) ii. Paleolithic Tools 1. Lower- H. erectus a. Acheulean i. Technique involved chipping the core in order to transform the round piece of rock into a flattish oval hand ax ii. Ex: hand ax, cleavers, stone picks
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Psychology Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment in the 21st Century
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2. Middle- H. sapiens and Neandertals a. Mousterian- Neandertal technology i. This technology included at least 14 categories of tools designed for different jobs 3. Upper- Anatomically modern humans a. Blade tools i. Knives, pins, needles with eyes, fishhooks b. Blades were modified to produce a variety of special-purpose implements c. Blade-core method was faster than the Mousterian d. Number of distinct tool types increased f. Early Hominins a. Ardipithecus i. Ardipithecus probably fed both in trees and on the ground and lived in a humid woodland habitat ii. Ardipithecus Ramidus (4.4 MYA) 1. Ancestral to Australopithecus 2. Was thought to be the oldest hominin (disproved) 3. Bipedal iii.Ardipithecus Kadabba (5.8 MYA) 1. Oldest hominin 2. Bipedal 3. Apelike in size, anatomy, and habitat 4. Lived in a wooded area b. Australopithecus i. Austrolopithecines pelvises are much more similar to Homo’s than to Apes; foramen magnum is more center on bottom of skull than the ape’s; narrower birth canals than Homos ii. Australopithecus Anamensis (4.2-3.9 MYA) 1. A bipedal hominin from northern Kenya 2. Molars have thick enamel and the apelike canines are large iii.Australopithecus Afarensis (3.8-3 MYA) 1. East Africa 2. Afarensis: hominin with some apelike features 3. Has fossils found in two sites: a. Laetoli, Tanzania (3.8-3.6 MYA) i. Mary Leakey was responsible for these finds
b. Hadar, Ethiopia (3.3-3 MYA) i. Donald Johanson- “Lucy” c. Skull and upper body are apelike, while lower body confirms bipedalism iv. Australopithecus Africanus (3-2 MYA) 1. South Africa 2. Gracile 3. Smaller, more slender v. Australopithecus Robustus (2-1 MYA) 1. South Africa 2.

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