amygdalin D and L arabinose arbutin D cellobiose dulcitol D galac tose glycogen

Amygdalin d and l arabinose arbutin d cellobiose

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amygdalin, D- and L-arabinose, arbutin, D(+)-cellobiose, dulcitol, D(+)-galac- tose, glycogen, m-inositol, inulin, D(+)-melezitose, D(+)-raffinose, L-rhamnose, acetamide, acetate, anthranilic acid, benzoate, 1,4-butanediol, 2,3-butanediol, hippurate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, lactate, malonate, 2-octanol, pimelic acid or tatrate (Wilhams et al, 1985; Isik et al., 1999). The major cellular fatty acids are
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Characteristics of the pathogens: Gram-positive bacteria 77 hexdecanoic, octadecanoic, octadeanoic and 10-methyloctadecanoic acid. The G + C ratio of the DNA is 67 mol % (Isik et ciL, 1999). Rhodococcus sp. In Canada, farmed Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, have been found with exophthalmia, from which Gram-positive bacteria were recovered. These organ- isms have been cultured, and identified as Rhodococcus (Backman et al, 1990). Subsequent examination of similar isolates from Atlantic salmon has also suggested an affinity with Rhodococcus (Claveau, 1991). One colony type was equated with Mycobacterium whereas the second was regarded as Rhodococcus. Rhodococcus sp. Isolates comprise non-acid-fast, facultatively anaerobic. Gram-positive rods (2-3 X 0.6 |im in size) [slightly club-shaped], which grow aerobically at room temperature (but not at 37°C) on blood agar in 3-4 days. The cell wall components include meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose, which equates with chemotype IVA, N-glycolated muramic acid, mycolic acids, and MK-8 as the predominant isoprenoid menaquinone. Neither catalase nor oxidase is produced. Urea is degraded. Xylose is fermented, but not so glucose, lactose, maltose or sucrose. Acid is produced from m(?.SY;-inositol but not from dulcitol, mannitol or sorbitol. Growth occurs in 5% (w/v) sodium chloride. Rhodococcus erythropolis Rhodococcus erythropolis Cultures comprise round, shiny off-white colonies that contain strictly aerobic, non-haemolytic. Gram-positive rods that produce catalase but not oxidase, grow well at 30 rather than 15°C and not at all at 4 or 37°C, and grow less well in the presence of only 1.5% (w/v) NaCl. N-acetyl-glucosamine, adipate, D-arabitol, gluconate, glucose, glycerol, inositol, malate, mannitol, phenylacetate, sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose are utiHsed, but not aesculin, amygdalin, D- and L-arabin- ose, caprate, cellobiose, dulcitol, D- and L-fucose, galactose, P-gentibiose, glyco- gen, inulin, 2-keto-gluconate, lactose, D-lyxose, maltose, D-mannose, melezitose, melibiose, ot-methyl-D-glucoside, P-methyl xyloside, ot-methyl-D-mannoside, D- raffinose, rhamnose, salicin, L-sorbose, starch, D-tagatose, D-turanose, D- and L-xylose (Olsen et al., 2006a) 16S rDNA sequencing revealed 99.9% and 100% homology between Scottish and Norwegian isolates and Rhodococcus erythropolis, respectively (Olsen et ai, 2006a).
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78 Bacterial Fish Pathogens Planococcaceae representative Planococcus sp. Since 1988, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of motile, Gram-positive cocci, tentative Planococcus, associated with diseases of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in the U.K. In some cases, it appeared that the Gram-positive cocci were inhabiting fish that had previously received extensive chemotherapy to control dis- eases caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
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  • Bacteria, representative, gram-negative bacteria

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