Unified german states and formed a german nation

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Unified german states and formed a german “nation”Using war, industry, power to consolidate German People“Blood and Iron” agenda---otto von bismarck's policy of using military violenceEffort to militarize prussia making it an eminent fighting force in europeFought wars w denmark, austria, and france under the justification of consolidating all german speaking ppl rather than gaining territoryBoosted german nationalismAlsace-LorraineFrance was forced to secede Alsace Lorraine w their loss of the franco-Prussian warGerman’s justified their conquer by arguing that the ppl who lived there spoke germanHumiliation of the french pplErnest Renan1882 address “What is a Nation?” A “vivisection” that treats the living as if they were dead---gonna hit a nerveProvide dispassionate critique of nationalismCrutique: mixture of groups define europeSpeaking of pure races doesn't make sense especially when used as a justification of the nationRational use of race to explain the nation is FICTIONMemories propagated by the state/society as a wholeTAUGHT what to rememberPartition of VerdunCivil war broke out b/w the GRAndsons of Charlemagnecreated traditional boundaries bw france and germanyArbitrary origins yet throughout the ages took on an aura of sanctityNecessity of “historical error”Necessity for nationalist memoryOne must accept or ignore a certain amount of historical error to buy into nationalismlooking to carefully at history, it unravels quicklyMemory of Bartholomew’s Day MassacreA crisis of succession erupted in the Frankish Empire and what had been the Frankish Kingdoms. They were arbitrarily separated into, three Kingdoms (one for each of the King's three sons). Renan uses this as an example of the disparity
between myth and reality of what constitutes a state, yet this myth becomes the conscience of the nation.Renan says we are obliged to forget this tragedy “Ethnographic principle”Renan argued that there is mixed blood at the heart of every European nationRace used to promote unityOthers can use race against your nationRacial subjugationIdentify themselves as a superior race and use it against youCritiques notion of using race to nationMichelet on the French RevolutionExample of historians skewing historyWrites about french revolution attempting to express what the revolutionaries really wanted to achieveImposes own ideas on the antionGave a mystical feel--nationalism requires reinvention of the pastRevisionist historyHistory can be made to say whatever the teller wants to sayHistorians put in interesting position of being able to speak for the deadCreated an illusional unity that doesn't exist“Spiritual principle” of a nationArgued that in order to truly define a nation you must look for “spiritual bonds” b/w pplLook into common sufferingArgues that the only way to have a legitimate nation to to constantly poll pll, asking what nation they belong toLegitimization of a nation is a “daily plebiscite”

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