B12: Coenzyme necessary for red blood cell formation, formation of amino acid methionine, entrance of some amino acids into Krebs cycle, and manufacture of choline (used to synthesize acetylcholine). -Pernicious anemia, neuropsychiatric abnormalities (ataxia, memory loss, weakness, personality, and mood changes, and abnormal sensations), and impaired activity of osteoblasts. D: Essential for absorption of calcium and phosphorus from GI tract. Works with parathyroid hormone (PTH) to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis. -Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Possible loss of muscle tone. K: Coenzyme essential for synthesis of several clotting factors by liver, including prothrombin. -Delayed clotting time results in excessive bleeding. FOLIC ACID: Synthesizes nitrogenous bases of DNA and RNA. Essential for normal production of red and white blood cells. -Production of abnormally large red blood cells (macrocytic anemia). Higher risk of neural tube defects in babies born to folate deficient mothers. 31.List the major chemical elements and microelements found in cells; give examples of how some of microelements can be used.-Major chemical elements- carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen 32.Explain how beta-oxidation works: in which cells does it happen, which organelles are involved, which molecules are used for it and what is the product?
33.What is the difference between “beta-oxidation” and “lipolysis”?
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 11 pages?