No single element will meet todays expectations for

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No single element will meet today's expectations for risk management. Rather, an integrated application of most of these elements will increase the aviation system's resistance to unsafe acts and conditions. However, even with effective safety management processes, there are no guarantees that all accidents can be prevented. Even where the risk is classed as acceptable (tolerable), if any measures that could result in the further reduction of the risk are identified, and these measures require little effort or resources to implement, then they should be implemented. The acronym ALARP is used to describe a risk that has been reduced to a level that is as low as reasonably practicable. In determining what is "reasonably practicable" in this context, consideration should be given to both the technical feasibility of further reducing the risk, and the cost; this could include a cost- benefit study. Showing that the risk in a system is ALARP means that any further risk reduction is either impracticable or grossly outweighed by the costs. It should, however, be borne in mind that when an individual or society "accepts" a risk, this does not mean that the (c) UPES, Not for Reproduction/ Sale
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Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Aviation Safety & Security Management risk is eliminated. Some level of risk remains; however, the individual or society has accepted that the residual risk is sufficiently low that it is outweighed by the benefits. These concepts are illustrated diagrammatically in the Tolerability of Risk (TOR) triangle in Figure 14.2. (In this figure, the degree of risk is represented by the width of the triangle.) Figure 14.2: Tolerability of Risk (TOR) Triangle Accidents versus Incidents (a) An accident is an occurrence during the operation of an aircraft which entails: (1) a fatality or serious injury; (2) substantial damage to the aircraft involving structural failure or requiring major repair; or (3) the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. (b) An incident is an occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation. A serious incident is an incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly occurred. 1:6000 Rule Research into industrial safety in 1969 indicated that for every 600 reported occurrences with no injury or damage, there were some: 30 incidents involving property damage; (c) UPES, Not for Reproduction/ Sale
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UNIT 14: Air Transport Safety Principles Notes ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 10 accidents involving serious injuries; and 1 major or fatal injury. The 1-10-30-600 ratio shown in Figure 14.3 is indicative of a wasted opportunity if investigative efforts are focused only on those rare occurrences where there is serious injury or significant damage. Figure 14.3: 600 Rule The factors contributing to such accidents may be present in hundreds of incidents and could be identified before serious injury or damage ensues. Effective safety management requires that staff and management identify and analyse hazards before they result in accidents.
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  • Fall '19
  • Instrument approach, Runway, Rajiv, Aviation Safety & Security Management

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