Responsible for growth and reproduction nuclear

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Responsible for growth and reproduction - Nuclear envelope = phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the nucleus - Eukaryotes have a nucleus with membrane bound organelle - Translation does not occur in the nucleus* Outcross: sperm and eggs from different individuals combine to form an offspring pH: a measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log(H+) and ranging from value from 0 to 14 - Acid = pH less than 7 - Base = pH greater than 7 Phospholipid bilayer: plasma membrane layers composed of phospholipid molecules arranged with polar head facing the outside and nonpolar tails facing the inside - Consists largely of phospholipids = plasma membrane* - Functions as biological membranes Pleiotropy: the ability of a single gene to have multiple effects - 1 gene controls many different phenotypes Protein: a biologically functional molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure - Integral protein = often has a carbohydrate chain attached* o Protein embedded in the membrane - Tertiary structure = protein folding* - Quaternary Structure = protein subunits interacting with each other - Primary Structure = a sequence of amino acids in a protein - Amino acid = monomer of a protein - Denaturation = unfolding of a proteins tertiary structure - Glycoprotein = proteins with attached carbohydrates - Cotransport = protein transport of more than one type of molecule at a time - Mosaic = protein in the membrane model - Facilitated diffusion: movement of particles with aid of proteins Protein secretion by cells: the movement of proteins produced by ribosomes attached to the ER, through a series of compartments and vesicles, via the Golgi apparatus to secretory vesicles for export from the cell
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Quaternary Structure of proteins: different polypeptide chains, each referred to as a subunit, associate together to form a functional protein - Protein subunits interacting with each other* Ribosomes: a complex of rRNA and protein molecules that function as a site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of a large and small subunit - In eukaryotic cells each subunit is assembled in the nucleolus - Important in translation* - Ribozyme = RNA that acts as an enzyme RNA: type of nucleic acid consisting of a polynucleotide made up of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses - Single-stranded nucleic acid that makes up part of the ribosome - It is only single stranded* - RNA polymerase = important in transcription* o Lays down ribonucleotides to a growing chain of RNA that does not require primers - Primase = lays down RNA primers - Intron = noncoding segments of RNA - Exon = coding segments of RNA - RNA splicing = process of joining together exons - mRNA = RNA that carries codon sequence to the ribosome - tRNA = RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome - rRNA = RNA that is found in the ribosome rRNA: RNA molecules that, together with proteins, make up ribosomes; most abundant type of RNA - site of ribosome and rRNA synthesis = nucleolus - RNA that is found in the ribosome Scientific Method:
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