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CHEMISTRY 162 Midterm 2 Review

The pressure that just stops the osmosis is equal to

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The pressure that just stops the osmosis is equal to the osmotic pressure of the solution Pi=MRT M of the solute Non-ideal solutions A solution that does not obey Raoult’s Law Ex, if solvent has special affinitity, for the solute, such as if hydrogen bonding occurs,  the tendency of the solvent molecules to escape will be lowered more than expected Thus causing a negative deviation in Raoult’s Law by lowering the vapor pressure Remember graphs
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05:59 Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
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05:59 Atomic Size Increase left and down Smallest He, largest Cs Metallic properties Increase left and down Ionization Energy Increase right and up Electronegativity Increase right and up Oxidation states Increase right and down Group 1A elements Alkali metals Ns1 valence, thus very active metals because they can lose their electron easily Hydrogen acts as nonmetal Hydrogen Colorless, odorless gas found as H2 Very flammable Produced by electrolysis of water or most commonly, Haber process with ammonia Can form hydrides (binary compounds containing hydrogen)
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05:59 Ionic- when hydrogen binds with most active metals, group 1A 2A Reducing agent Covalent- when hydrogen binds with other nonmetals Water Metallic (interstitial)- when transition metal crystals are treated with hydrogen gas Migrate into crystal structure to occupy holes (interstices) Group 2A elements Alkaline earth metals, NS2 Very reactive, losing their two valence electrons to form ionic compounds that contain  M2+ cations Group 3A elements NS2NP1 Common covalent hydride: borane Group 4A elements NS2NP2, contain 2 most important elements on the earth: C and Si Semimetals Ability to form pi bonds Group 5A elements NS2NP3, varied chemical properties Readily lose electrons to form cations All except nitrogen can form molecules with covalent bonds Bipyramidal
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05:59 Ability to form pi bonds after nitrogen decreases dramatically Nitrogen Exsists as N2 Unreactive Has strong triplebond with itself inN2 Haber process and Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen Hydrides Ammonia-fertilizers, high degree of intermolecular interaction by hydrogen bonding in  liquid Hydrazine Nitrogen Oxide Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O)- anesthetic, aerosol NO- MO with bond order 2.5 Oxyacids of Nitrogen Nitric acid Rate decreases with increasing temperature Phosphorous
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