Cognitive Exam #2 Questions

Describes structure of language system what needs to

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Describes structure of language system – what needs to be explained by cognitive psych/cognitive neuroscience Noam Chomsky – generative grammar: language “faculty” genetically determined, but qualitatively different from other species systems Believed it evolved “all at once” (minority view today) Functional linguistics – say it evolved, maybe from gestures, more gradually to serve social needs: affiliation, deception Lots of syntactic analysis in Chomsky tradition based on sentences in isolation. Language use typically in context. o Arlene plays the tuba vs. It is the tube that Arlene plays o In the second sentence, depending on what information came before in conversation you can determine what is “new” and “old” info in the sentence Ex. You already learned that Arlene plays an instrument so the sentence provided new info about what instrument Rules define which “strings” of elements (sounds, words) are acceptable in a language and which are not. Rules explain relations between elements even if they are NOT next to each other (hard for a behaviorist approach to explain) Highest goal: explain exactly how a person produces and understands language How linguistic theories explain intuitions about language Deep structure : The structure of the sentence that conveys the meaning of the sentence. Surface Structure : The superficial arrangement of constituents Sentences can have different surface structure, but similar deep structure: o Arlene played the tuba o The tuba was played by Arlene Sentences can have similar phrase structure, although their underlying structure is different: o John is easy to please o John is eager to please Stages of Learning: Syntax
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Babbling, all sorts of sounds, no linguistic organization (0-6 months) Babbling decreases, consonant-vowel syllable (6-12 months) Stage 1 : single word utterances (begins around 1 year old). “cookie” can be more than word. I want a cookie, give me more cookie, etc. Stage 2 : Two word utterances (begins around 2 nd birthday) o Pivot Words and open words o Pivot: no or more o Open: Shoe: no shoe “I don’t want to wear shoes” Milk: no milk “I don’t want any milk” More Milk: “I want more milk” Stage 3 : Simple sentences, developing grammar o “Put dolly table” o Irregular past tense: Mommy went o Irregular plurals: My feet o As more and more regular words are learns, child infers rules (the child’s own rules) o Mommy goed, my feets, mommy sleeped o Never modeled by parents, previously used correct forms drop out o Early Stage 3: no me fall (negation put at beginning, no transformation rules to guide manipulation of sentence elements) o Later Stage 3: me no fall o Wh- questions (who, what, where, etc.) Stage 2: where dolly? Stage 3: more complex Adult WH question described as result of 2 transformations: Kernel sentence: The car is where.
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  • Spring '13
  • HiramBrownell
  • visual cortex

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