This assessment also facilitates the social

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focus of a social or socioeconomic lifecycle assessment (S-LCA). This assessment also facilitates the social responsibility of the companies by providing information about the potential social impacts on people caused by the activities in the life cycle of the products offered to the consumers. The S-LCA, when combined with the environmental lifecycle assessment (E-LCA), will result in a holistic approach and will move toward sustainable production and consumption. Table 3 Data classi fi cation (Ooms et al. 2012 ) Data accessibility (cost of data research) Easy ! Hard In fl uence on the results # þ ± Speci fi c Half-speci fi c Half-speci fi c Generic The Sustainable Apparel Coalition and the Higg Index 41
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The S-LCA methodology has four major steps: goal de fi nition, scope de fi nition, inventory analysis, and impact assessment (UNEP 2009 ; LCI 2013 ). The nature of social impacts may be either negative or positive when compared with a speci fi c human value or standard prescribed by the society or law. The primary concern of the E-LCA is the protection of environmental qualities in line with the values of society with regard to environment. The areas of protection by the E-LCA are human health, natural environment, natural resources and manmade environment. The S-LCA has another dimension, human dignity and well-being, added on to the areas of protection to supplement the human health factor. The ultimate goal of the S-LCA is to improve the social conditions throughout the lifecycle of the product with the central concept of human well-being. The goal of S-LCA studies is to compare the extent of negative social impacts and the greatest social bene fi ts of two similar products manufactured by different methods, thereby providing information to consumers to help them to make ethical choices. The second goal is to identify the hotspots in the production process or manufacturing centers that have negative social impacts, the short-term results and the long-term impacts, the victims of the impacts and how these can be addressed. The main stakeholders include workers/employees, the local community, society (national and global), consumers and value chain actors. Further categories that are under consideration for inclusion are NGOs, the state and future generations. The system boundaries are set using the ISO 12044 framework and the social indicators are assessed at the organizational level rather than the individual level. The S-LCA indicators are categorized as quantitative, qualitative and semi-quali- tative. In E-LCA, the impact of indicators is based on the numerical values of endpoint indicators, whereas the S-LCA uses midpoint and endpoint indicators. Some endpoint indicators in S-LCA are mortality, morbidity, autonomy, safety, security, tranquility, equal opportunities, participation and in fl uence. The inventory analysis collects data on the social impacts to be considered in relation to behavior of the company towards the stakeholders. The impact of the assessment is based on the grouping of data based on the social setup to provide substantial conclusions.
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