However the key strength of the study is the use of valid and reliable data

However the key strength of the study is the use of

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findings. However, the key strength of the study is the use of valid and reliable data collection instrument, PI-developed survey, which had a Cronbach’s α of between 0.91 to 0.93. Despite the weaknesses of the study, the findings advance knowledge. For instance, because the researchers found out a moderate positive correlation between the nurse managers’ identification of bullying and response to bullying behaviors. Consequently, training nurse managers on effective ways of identification may reduce bullying. Berry et al.’s (2016) study had a well-formulated research problem. Following an in- depth review of past literature related to their study, the researchers established that there
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BULLYING IN NURSING: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW 10 currently do not exist strategies needed to keep the nurses in their current job without psychological distress symptoms are unknown in occupational environments characterized by high frequency of bullying behaviors. The purpose of the study was also explicitly stated with the variables being identifiable. The advantages of this study included the use of robust data analysis methods as well as reliable and valid data collection instruments. However, the limitation of the study is the small sample size which limited external validity of findings and the use of self-reports which may have resulted in response bias. Despite these limitations, the findings advance our knowledge by showing the adverse effects of bullying such as increased stress, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The gap in the current literature is socio-demographic differences in nurse-to-nurse bullying and how it differentially affects nurses’ intent to quit their current job. Examples of these sociodemographic attributes of nurses include gender, age, educational attainment, race, among others. The presence of this literature gap means that the problem of bullying does not differentially affect nurses based on their sociodemographic attributes. There are similarities across the studies. Generally, all the studies reviewed agree that workplace bullying leads to increased intention to quit the current job. Consequently, no inconsistencies existed regarding the impact of bullying on intent to leave the current job. IV. Synthesis, Interpretation and Presentation of Results The major trends in the research highlights the existance of nurse-to-nurse bullying in the workplace (e.g., Armmer & Ball, 2015; Durmus, 2018; Evans, 2018; Sauer and McCoy,2018). Because most of the studies reported a high prevalence of bullying, generalizations can be made across studies. Evidence also shows that there currently exist effective interventions that can be used to address the problem of bullying. Some of these strategies include a need for workplace
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BULLYING IN NURSING: AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW 11 interventions to reducing bullying such as zero tolerance for horizontal violence, ongoing assessment of organizational climate, and mentoring (Armmer & Ball, 2015). Also, supervisors’ authentic leadership can help reduce bullying (Spence-Laschinger & Fida, 2014). Lastly, training
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