Southern Colonies and Chesapeake: powerful families supported Crown, but rural supported the “rebels”, less self-rule from colonial elite; these issues would go throughout Revolutionary War 11. The Tea Act, 1773 a. 1773: Parliament passed Tea Act to give East India Company monopoly on sale of tea in North America i. Provisions of the Act: 1. lower colonists’ duty on tea 2. East India Company gets the monopoly 3. appointed royal agents pay the duty in England then sell tea to the colonists→ colonial merchants could no longer sell tea; before act, most colonists bought smuggled Dutch tea; Tea Act was meant to cut out Dutch tea trade, but lower the cost of tea to the colonists b. Colonial Response: i. Colonial tea merchants were upset at losing business; merchants legally replaced w/royal agents ii. colonists saw it as another move by Parliament to establish authority; went from tax laid in England and collected in England, it was tax laid in England and collected in America→ published protests, sent tea back to Britain, threatened anyone trying to enforce Act, refused to comply w/Tea Act c. The Boston Tea Party: Boston, Gov. Thomas Hutchinson’s son was consignee & Hutchinson saw it as a way to show allegiance to Crown; Bostonians tried to send tea back to England, but Hutchinson wanted them to pay tax on tea first; colonists refused (ship sat in Boston Harbor) Law stated tax had to be paid by Dec. 17, 1773 so Gov. said
ship would be unloaded and tax paid that day; Night of Dec. 16, 1773 about 60 colonists dressed as Mohawks boarded the ship, dumped the tea (342 chests, almost $1million in today’s money) into Boston Harbor; became known as Boston Tea Party (powerful strike against Crown, discipline had been maintained as not other vandalism occurred)→ destruction of British property, so went from passive protests to aggressive ones 12. The Coercive and Quebec Acts, 1774 a. Quick response from Parliament; Arrest ringleaders of Boston Tea Party? Others disagreed (Gaspee incident); Parliament passed punitive legislation: b. The Coercive Acts (1774): 4 separate acts to punish MA for Tea Party; Parliament wants to attack MA, divide colonists, reconquer them; 4 acts were: i. Boston Port Act: closed Boston harbor until destroyed tea was paid for ii. Mass. Gov’t Act: ended self-gov’t in the colony iii. Administration of Justice Act: British officials charged w/capital offenses could only be tried in Britain iv. Quartering Act: applied to all colonies and allowed British army to house troops wherever they wanted (private bldgs.) c. The Quebec Act: 5th act set out legal issues in Canada and 1) gave French Canadians right to practice Roman Catholicism (colonists who were mostly Protestant did not like this) 2) declared England’s holdings in west of Proclamation Line (Appalachian Mts.) would be governed from Quebec (colonists mad that governing would be in north instead of east because colonists had fought for this land during French and Indian War colonists called the Coercive Acts and Quebec Act, Intolerable Acts d.
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