The Wounded Knee massacre mark a particularly tragic milestone in American history. The killing of innocent children unarmed men and women were the majorencounter between US troops and Indians, which is viewed to mark the end of the plains wars.
FrazierWounded Knee and The Ghost DanceThe massacre took place on 29 December 1890, in Lakota Pine Ridge reservation, Dakota, United States 1The battle of Wounded Knee was the last armed conflict between the American Indian wars and Great Sioux Nation, where 200 native Americans were killed. By 1890, all native Americans had lost the struggle to defend their land and territories and Whiteman had ruled over them. During this period, they saw rise of a prophet called Wovoka, whom he promised Lakota return of their traditional way of life if they engage in purification ceremonies. One of the purification ceremonies was Ghost Dance, a ceremonial practice where people join hands and swivel in a circle. The introduction of ritual by Wovoka caught many of Lakota, they were struggling to adjust to reservation life and encouraged by Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull was well known for the eerie accuracy of his visions during the days when they had fought Custer. All through 1890, the US government was disturbed by growing supremacy of the Ghost Dance movement, who told Dakotan that they were conquered because they had annoyed their gods by deserting their values, beliefs, and customs. This led to the arrest of Sitting Bull by Indian soldiers, reservation police, and his vision come to pass that his people will kill him. This increase tension and Indians native, which led to Wounded Knee massacre, 14 days after his death 21Anderson, 2792Anderson,279
FrazierLakota traditions and the Ghost Dance Like any community/tribe, Lakota had their way of worship, which was an inseparable part of daily life activity; much like other Plains Indians, they believed in a spiritual cosmic system that express itself everywhere in human surroundings. Also, spiritual heavenly world wassymbolized in religious ceremonies, beliefs and mysterious. principle of Lakota belief was based on general spirit force, which was everywhere in the invisible and visible world; spirit embodied everything that could not be explained or understood. The spirit was important in Lakota’s worship system because they believed that warned them about dangers as well as it took care of them. Lakota used to give spiritual gifts to conciliate them and make them more beneficial and helpful. Thus, without any regard to them, it could be dangerous as well as harmful; Moreover,