It was the dukes younger brother the duc dalenc on

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used in the film. It was the duke’s younger brother, the duc d’Alenc ¸ on, who was put forth as a possible husband for Elizabeth, although not until she was in her forties. And finally, Elizabeth’s choice of career over family and personal happiness seems to reflect a feminist theme of our own times; it certainly was not common in the sixteenth century when women were considered unfit to rule. Queen Elizabeth I (Cate Blanchett) and the Duke of Norfolk (Christopher Eccleston). Polygram/The Kobal Collection 406 C H A P T E R 1 3
/Composition/Wadsworth/Spielvogel_0495502855/2nd Pass Pages/spielvogel_0495502855_ch13/spielvogel_0495502855_ch13.3d] . [] . [373–409] TIMELINE 1500 1540 1520 1560 1580 1600 Luther and the indulgence controversy French Wars of Religion Anabaptists at Münster Calvin’s church at Geneva Council of Trent Peace of Augsburg Thomas More, Utopia Erasmus, The Praise of Folly Edict of Nantes Johannes Sturm’s gymnasium Spanish armada Ignatius of Loyola, The Spiritual Exercises Habsburg-Valois Wars Peasants’ War Revolt of the Netherlands CONCLUSION When the Augustinian monk Martin Luther burst onto the scene with a series of theses on indulgences, few people suspected that his observations would eventually split all of Europe along religious lines. But the yearning for reform of the church and meaningful religious experience caused a seemingly simple dispute to escalate into a powerful movement. Although Luther felt that his revival of Christianity based on his interpretation of the Bible should be acceptable to all, others soon appeared who also read the Bible but interpreted it in different ways. Protestantism fragmented into different sects, which, though united in their dislike of Catholicism, were themselves divided over the interpretation of the sacraments and religious prac- tices. As reform ideas spread, religion and politics became ever more intertwined. By 1555, Lutheranism had lost much of its momentum; its energy was largely replaced by the new Protestant form of Calvinism, which had a clarity of doctrine and a fervor that made it attractive to a whole new generation of Europeans. Although Calvinism’s militancy enabled it to expand across Europe, Catholicism was also experiencing its own revival and emerged as a militant faith. An age of religious passion was followed by an age of religious warfare. C 407
NOTES 1. Desiderius Erasmus, The Paraclesis, in John Olin, ed., Christian Humanism and the Reformation: Selected Writings of Erasmus, 3d ed. (New York, 1987), p. 101. 2. Thomas More, Utopia, trans. Paul Turner (Harmondsworth, England, 1965), p. 76. 3. Quoted in Alister E. McGrath, Reformation Thought: An Introduction (Oxford, 1988), p. 72. 4. Quoted in Gordon Rupp, Luther’s Progress to the Diet of Worms (New York, 1964), p. 82. 5. Martin Luther, On the Freedom of a Christian Man, quoted in E. G. Rupp and Benjamin Drewery, eds., Martin Luther (New York, 1970), p. 50.

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