100%(1)1 out of 1 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 34 - 37 out of 37 pages.
used in the film. It was the duke’s younger brother, the ducd’Alenc¸on, who was put forth as a possible husband forElizabeth, although not until she was in her forties. Andfinally, Elizabeth’s choice of career over family and personalhappiness seems to reflect a feminist theme of our owntimes; it certainly was not common in the sixteenth centurywhen women were considered unfit to rule.Queen Elizabeth I (Cate Blanchett) and the Duke of Norfolk(Christopher Eccleston).Polygram/The Kobal Collection406C H A P T E R1 3
/Composition/Wadsworth/Spielvogel_0495502855/2nd Pass Pages/spielvogel_0495502855_ch13/spielvogel_0495502855_ch13.3d]..[373–409]TIMELINE150015401520156015801600Luther and theindulgence controversyFrench Wars of ReligionAnabaptists at MünsterCalvin’s church at GenevaCouncil of TrentPeace ofAugsburgThomas More,UtopiaErasmus, The Praise of FollyEdict of NantesJohannes Sturm’s gymnasiumSpanish armadaIgnatius of Loyola, The Spiritual ExercisesHabsburg-Valois WarsPeasants’ WarRevolt of the NetherlandsCONCLUSIONWhen the Augustinian monk Martin Luther burst onto thescene with a series of theses on indulgences, few peoplesuspected that his observations would eventually split allof Europe along religious lines. But the yearning for reformof the church and meaningful religious experience causeda seemingly simple dispute to escalate into a powerfulmovement.Although Luther felt that his revival of Christianitybased on his interpretation of the Bible should beacceptable to all, others soon appeared who also read theBible but interpreted it in different ways. Protestantismfragmented into different sects, which, though united intheir dislike of Catholicism, were themselves divided overthe interpretation of the sacraments and religious prac-tices. As reform ideas spread, religion and politics becameever more intertwined.By 1555, Lutheranism had lost much of its momentum;its energy was largely replaced by the new Protestant formof Calvinism, which had a clarity of doctrine and a fervorthat made it attractive to a whole new generation ofEuropeans. Although Calvinism’s militancy enabled it toexpand across Europe, Catholicism was also experiencing itsown revival and emerged as a militant faith. An age ofreligious passion was followed by an age of religious warfare.C407
NOTES1. Desiderius Erasmus,The Paraclesis,in John Olin, ed.,ChristianHumanism and the Reformation: Selected Writings of Erasmus,3d ed. (New York, 1987), p. 101.2. Thomas More,Utopia,trans. Paul Turner (Harmondsworth,England, 1965), p. 76.3. Quoted in Alister E. McGrath,Reformation Thought: AnIntroduction(Oxford, 1988), p. 72.4. Quoted in Gordon Rupp,Luther’s Progress to the Diet of Worms(New York, 1964), p. 82.5. Martin Luther,On the Freedom of a Christian Man,quoted inE. G. Rupp and Benjamin Drewery, eds.,Martin Luther(NewYork, 1970), p. 50.