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differential access to social resources and dominant social norms offered an explanation of differential rates of criminal behavior b.Shaw and McKayi.Chicago school: delinquency is an endemic in certain neighborhoods and that the problem of becoming delinquent is greater for persons in lower than higher income statusgroups1.Concluded that learning interaction and communication were the process around which a theory of criminal behavior should be developed2.This Normalized our understanding of deviance3.This Allowed us to imagine, given strong exposure to forces favoring non-confirmation, we could be as deviant as any of our fellow human-beings4.Contributed to the notion that deviants were normal people overly exposed to learning process which equated being normal with what others saw as being deviant ii.Theorist: 1.Cooley and Mead:a.Cooley: Self-theoryi.Cooley argued that the self is a product of our social interactions with other peopleb.Mead: Looking glass selfi.According to Mead, the self, the part of one's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image, emerges through social interaction1.As in you are looking at yourself through the lens of others*you think others see you as deviant, therefore you take on the role as a deviant* therefore you continue with the following steps which are part of the main modern themes of the learning theory 4 main themes : modern themes of learning theory
3.First theme: Stages of developmenta.PG. 325: steps on the road to becoming deviant; each stage prepared the emerging deviant for continued and deeper involvement in the underworld of rule breaking i.Stage 1: willing to try, exposing yourself to the deviant culture1.Opening yourself up to the idea of being deviant2.Stems from a strong feelings of dissatisfaction regarding one's present situation in life3.Gateway of a more serious crimeii.Stage 2: employment of deviancy1.Performing deviant acts on a regular basis: due to an understanding that deviance is a way out of an individual's problemsiii.Stage 3: perception of deviance(process of additional learning) 1.The individual's cognitive and ethical images of deviance 2.Individuals views himself as cable of committing criminal acts to become a deviantiv.Stage 4: normative conceptions of deviance(process of additional learning) 1.Learning through experience the do’s and dont’s of deviance2.It is then when they become a deviantv.Stage 5: consistency of deviance1.Frequency criminal acts 4.Second theme: The content of learning a.Sutherland: elaborates his notion that the development of deviant behavior involved the acquisition of prevalent attitudes and guilt- neutralizing rationalizations as well as the “how to do it” techniques of the deviant trade of activity5.Third theme: The Modes of learning deviance pg. 328 → modes in which techniques, attitudes, and rationalization of rule-breaking are acquired… through direct, almost formal instruction of coaching and indirect imitationa.Formal instructioni.