5 the feminist perspective stresses gender as the key

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5. The feminist perspective stresses gender as the key to understand- ing social interactions. Feminist sociologists charge that too often, scholars concentrate on male social roles, ignoring male–female differences in behavior. 6. The interactionist perspective is concerned primarily with the everyday ways in which individuals shape their society and are shaped by it. Interactionists see social change as an ongoing and very personal process. 7. The scientific method includes five steps: defining the problem; reviewing the literature; formulating the hypothesis; selecting the research design and collecting and analyzing data; and developing the conclusion. The hypothesis states a possible relationship between two or more variables, usually one independent variable and a dependent variable that is thought to be related to it. 8. To avoid having to test everyone in a population, sociologists use a sample that is representative of the general population. Using a representative sample lends validity and reliability to the results of scientific research. 9. Sociologists use four major research designs in their work: surveys of the population; ethnographic studies of behaviors and communi- ties; experiments that test hypothetical cause-and-effect relation- ships; and analysis of existing sources. 10. Applied sociology —the practical application of the discipline to problems in human behavior and organizations—is a growing field that includes community research and clinical sociology.
O L C Visit the Online Learning Center for Sociology Matters to access quizzes for self-study and review. 36 chapter 1: the sociological view applied sociology, 32 basic sociology, 33 causal logic, 23 clinical sociology, 33 code of ethics, 31 conflict perspective, 17 content analysis, 30 control group, 29 control variable, 26 correlation, 24 cultural capital, 14 dependent variable, 23 double consciousness, 12 dysfunction, 16 ethnography, 28 experiment, 29 experimental group, 29 feminist perspective, 18 functionalist perspective, 15 Hawthorne effect, 29 hypothesis, 23 ideal type, 10 independent variable, 23 interactionist perspective, 19 interview, 27 latent function, 17 macrosociology, 14 manifest function, 16 microsociology, 14 natural science, 4 nonverbal communication, 20 observation, 28 operational definition, 22 qualitative research, 28 quantitative research, 28 questionnaire, 27 random sample, 24 reliability, 25 research design, 27 sample, 24 science, 4 scientific method, 21 secondary analysis, 29 social capital, 14 social science, 4 sociological imagination, 3 sociology, 2 survey, 27 theory, 6 validity, 25 variable, 23 Verstehen, 10 Key Terms

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