1s 1 principal quantum number n angular momentum

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1s 1 principal quantum number n angular momentum quantum number l number of electrons in the orbital or subshell Orbital diagram H 1s 1
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69 What is the electron configuration of Mg? Mg 12 electrons 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 = 12 electrons Abbreviated as [Ne]3s 2 [Ne] 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 What are the possible quantum numbers for the last (outermost) electron in Cl? Cl 17 electrons 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 5 = 17 electrons Last electron added to 3p orbital n = 3 l = 1 m l = -1, 0, or +1 m s = ½ or -½
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70 Outermost subshell being filled with electrons
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Classification by Sublevels Main group s block 2 s 4 s 5 s 6 s 7 s 3 s 1s 5 f 4 f 6d 4d 3d 5d 6d 5d 4d 3d 4p 5p 6p 7p 3p 2p 1s Lanthanides and actinides f block Transition elements d block Main group p block The periodic table shows the filling order. Remember the block identities and you can identify where each successive e - adds.
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72
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73 Paramagnetic unpaired electrons 2p Diamagnetic all electrons paired 2p
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Magnetism Spinning e - ’s act like tiny magnets. If there are unpaired e - ’s in an atom: The spins all point in the same direction (Hund’s rule). If these atomic magnets line up in a bulk sample You have a ferromagnet ferromagnet - - a permanent magnet. When all the e - ’s in an atom are paired: The magnets cancel each other out. The atom is diamagnetic diamagnetic pushed weakly away from magnetic fields. The magnets point in the same direction and add up The atom is paramagnetic. paramagnetic. attracted to magnetic fields.
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Magnets Paramagnet Ferromagnet
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Types of Magnetic Behavior Fe, Co, Ni
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77 Quantum Dots (few nm; metal or semiconductor) Energies of the electrons quantized (electrons to a small volume) Normal behavior of the matter is different for the quantum world. QDs can function as LEDs They can be used for imaging tumors , to label tissues, quantum computing and photovoltaic cells for harvesting solar energy . Quantum Dots
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Recap-Photoelectric Effect (PE), Bohr Theory (BT) & Emission Spectra and Quantum Mechanical (QM) Model PE – Threshold value (E min ) BT & Lines of H- Emission Spectrum ( orbit ) QM – Wave equation and wave functions Probability (~90%) of finding an electron ( orbital ) – Shells ( n , energy); subshells ( l , shape); orbitals ( m l , orientation)
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Electron Configurations Distribution of all electrons in an atom Consist of Number denoting the energy level
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Electron Configurations Distribution of all electrons in an atom Consist of Number denoting the energy level Letter denoting the type of orbital
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Electron Configurations Distribution of all electrons in an atom. Consist of Number denoting the energy level. Letter denoting the type of orbital. Superscript denoting the number of electrons in those orbitals.
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SAMPLE EXERCISE 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Two electromagnetic waves are represented in the image below. (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) If one wave represents visible light and the other represents infrared radiation, which wave is which? PRACTICE EXERCISE If one of the waves in the image above represents blue light and the other red light, which is which?
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