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lead to increased risk of osteoporosis; therefore, older adults with history of osteoporosis or osteopenia are encouraged to take calcium supplement vitamin DWays to Reduce Negative EffectsPatients need to be educated on proper use of inhaled corticosteroids, to rinse their mouthafter use if an inhaled corticosteroid and to ensure that their inhalers have spacer. For corticosteroids, patients need to be cautious about their blood sugar as this medication can cause
hyperglycemia, and higher mortality in COPD patients if used for a longer period. To be medication compliant and to stop smoking. Behavioral modification is an important factor towards exacerbation reduction. To recognize the signs and symptoms of disease exacerbation soas to call for help on time, and when in doubt, call your physician. ReferencesArcangelo, V.P., Peterson, A.M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics For Advanced Practice. A practical Approach. (4thed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters KluwerO'Neal, W. K., Boucher, R. C., Kesimer, M., Ford, A. A., Ceppe, A., Radicioni, G., & ... Woodruff, P. G. (2017). Airway Mucin Concentration as a Marker of Chronic Bronchitis. New England Journal Of Medicine, 377(10), 911-922. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1701632Pelkonen, M. K., Notkola, I. K., Laatikainen, T. K., & Jousilahti, P. (2017). Chronic bronchitis inrelation to hospitalization and mortality over three decades. Respiratory Medicine, 12387-93. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2016.12.018
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Arcangelo, chronic bronchitis, Wilbur, Reinhold