Drug levels in the patients bloodstream can be

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(Norvir), saquinavir (Fortase and Invirase), nelfinavir (Viracept), amprenavir (Agenerase). Drug levels in the patients bloodstream can be increased by blocking the metabolism (degradation or breakdown) of the medication in the liver using low doses of ritonavir. This is called protease inhibitor boosting. One drug Kaletra has combined lopinavir, a protease inhibitor with a small amount of ritonavir in the same capsule. Retrovirus - A special group of viruses that are proven to cause a variety of diseases in animals. A special type of retrovirus, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), is believed to be the virus which causes AIDS. Reverse Transcriptase - The enzyme unique to retroviruses that allows them to copy RNA to DNA and replicate themselves in the genetic material of the cell. Risk Factors - Any personal characteristic or behavior that increases the likelihood that a person will be affected by a given condition. The risk factors that are believed to increase the chances of transmitting HIV infection include engaging in intimate sexual contact (in particular, vaginal or anal intercourse) without a condom, sharing IV needles, and other activities which involve the exchange of infected body fluids. Co- factors are additional characteristics or other conditions that work with other risk factors to increase the chances of getting a disease. For instance, having a diagnosed sexually transmissible disease or already weakened immune system are believed to be co-factors or increase the chances of being infected with HIV or progressing to AIDS. Screening - The process of identifying undetected infection or disease by using test, examinations or other procedures. These are usually simple, quick procedures that can be applied to large numbers of people. The tests are used to separate apparently well individuals who probably have a disease from those who probably do not. A screening test is not designed to diagnose a disease. It is important for persons testing positive on a screening procedure to be diagnosed and receive appropriate treatment, if necessary. Generally, screening tests are directed towards or used in populations considered to be at higher risk of contracting a disease. Sensitivity - The ability of a screening test to identify correctly individuals with a disease or condition -- i.e., to identify "true positives". Most HIV antibody tests are highly sensitive, with the sensitivity of currently licensed tests averaging 99% or greater under optimal laboratory conditions. However, the sensitivity of the tests, or their ability to identify true positives, may vary according to the manufacturer of the test kit used, the prevalence of HIV infection in the test population, the quality assurance standards employed by the testing laboratory, the interpretation of the test results and the standardization of values to determine the presence of HIV antibodies.
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