high personal involvement; high elaboration, careful processing of info, attitude change depends on quality of arguments Peripheral: low personal achievement; low elaboration, careful processing of info does not occur, attitude change depends on presence of persuasion cues (e.g., attractiveness of person delivering message, expert source) Know… Mere exposure effect : tendency to feel more positively toward a stimulus as a result of repeated contact with it Attitude similarity : more similar attitudes, high ratings of attractiveness Attraction-similarity hypothesis : people are more likely to be romantically attracted to people who are similar in physical attractiveness than to people who are notably more or less attractive Social influence Social norms : learned, socially-based rules of behavior Norm of reciprocity : tendency to respond to others as they acted toward you Deindividuation : the process by which group members may discontinue self- evaluation and adopt group norms and attitudes; heightened arousal & cohesiveness w/group resulting in reduced sense of personal responsibility & accountability for behavior Conformity : change behavior or beliefs to match others (due to real or imagined group pressure) Compliance Techniques
Foot-in-the-door technique: start with a small request then follow up with a bigger one EX// A graduate student in biology asks you to sign a petition to support “saving the javelinas”. A week later, the graduate student again approaches you, this time requesting that you participate in a walk-a-thon to raise money for the javelinas. Door-in-the-face technique: start with a big request then follow with a smaller one EX// Your friend asks to borrow your car for a week (something he knows you are unlikely to agree to). When you say no, he then asks you if he can borrow the car only on Saturday (what he really wanted all along). Low-ball technique: make an attractive initial offer, then once you have a commitment, make a little less attractive EX// A salesman gets you to agree to purchase a new car, then tells you the car you want is not available, but he does happen to have a similar car on the lot with a few additional features that costs a bit more money. Group Behavior Social loafing: the tendency to put forth less effort when working on a task with others than when working alone Social facilitation: process by which a person’s performance is increased when other members of a group engage in similar behavior (you work better when people are watching/trying to impress, and when by yourself you slack off a bit) Group polarization: group discussion causes members to shift to more extreme positions in whatever direction the group was leaning initially Groupthink: a process in which group members are influenced by cohesiveness and a dynamic leader to ignore external realities as they make decisions Learning Reinforcement : any event that increases the probability that a response will occur Antecedents : events that precede a response Consequences : effects that follow a response
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- Fall '13
- Avoidant personality disorder, PSYCHOLOGY STUDY GUIDE