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What is a negative feedback loop? How does it differ from a positive feedback loop? What are ionic bonds? What are covalent bonds? What are synthesis and decomposition reactions and the other terms which are used to describe these reactions?
○A + B →AB ○Anabolic reactions: joining amino acids into large protein molecules ●Decomposition Reaction/Catabolic: molecule broken down into smaller molecules ○AB →A + B ●Exchange/Displacement: bonds are both made and broken ○AB + C →AC + B and AB + CD →AD + CB ●Oxidation Reduction: decomposition reactions, basiss of all reactions in which food fuels are broken down for energy, exchange reaction because electrons are exchanged. ○Electron donor: reactant losing the electrons →becomes oxidized ○Electron acceptor: reactant taking up the transferred electrons →becomes reduced What are acids? What do they produce when dissolved in water? ●Acids: substance that releases hydrogen ions in detectable amounts ○Proton donors ●When acids dissolve in water: release hydrogen ions (protons) and anions ●Concentration of the protons that determines the acidity of a solution ●Anions have little or no effect on acidity ●REMEMBER pH SCALE: ○0-6 Acidic ○7 Neutral ○8-14 Increasingly Basic What are bases? What do they produce when they are dissolved in water? ●Bases: proton acceptors, take up hydrogen ions in detectable amounts What is neutralization? ●Neutralization: acids and bases mixed, react with each other in displacement reactions, form WATER and a SALT○Joining of H+ and OH- to form water neutralizesthe solution List the 4 organic compounds: ●Organic compound: distinguished by the fact that they contain carbon ●Inorganic compound: lack carbon ●4Organic Compounds: ○Carbohydrates: contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, solubility as a monosaccharide■Larger the CHO molecule, less soluble it is in water
■Monosaccharide: simple sugars, single-chain, single ring structures containing 3-7 carbon atoms, 1:2:1 ratio carbon, hydrogen, carbon ■Disaccharide: double sugar, two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis→water molecule is lost (lactose, maltose) ●too large to pass through membranes, must be digested to simple sugar to be absorbed into blood →hydrolysis →water molecule added to each bond, breaking bonds and releasing simple sugar units ■Polysaccharides: polymers of simple sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis ●Large, fairly insoluble, ideal storage products ●Starch: storage CHO formed by plants ○