Appreciate the need to use appropriate teaching and learning strategies that

Appreciate the need to use appropriate teaching and

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Appreciate the need to use appropriate teaching and learning strategies that meet the learning needs of children with intellectual disability. Understand and explain the etiological factors in intellectual disability. Do away with the myths surrounding intellectual disability Definitionand explanation of key elementsThe definition of intellectual disability is first cited in the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities’ (AAIDD) definition manual which is now the U.S. Social Security Administrations’ (SSA) Revised Medical Criteria for Mental Disorders in September 2010. The AAIDD’s definition for intellectual disability is as follows: Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18 (the developmental period). Key elements in the definition:Significant limitations in intellectual functioning:Intellectual functioning is determined by one or more of the standardized tests developed for that purpose. Performance on standardized intelligence tests of greater than two standard deviations below the mean is required before a score can be considered significantly sub-average. These are those who possess an intelligent quotient (IQ) of less than 70 on standardized tests. Adaptive behaviour:It refers to the effectiveness or degree with which the individual meets the standards of personal independence and social responsibility expected of his/her age and social group (Hardman, Drew & Egan, 2005). Adaptive behaviour comprises three skill areas such as: Conceptual:This involves language (receptive and expressive), literacy (reading and writing), money concepts, time concepts, number concepts, and self-direction (making choices, following schedules, initiating activities, seeking assistance, and solving problems). Social skills:This involves interpersonal skills, responsibility, self-esteem (belief and confidence in one’s own ability and value), gullibility (not easily deceived or tricked), naiveté (wariness, not thrusting everything, experiences), following rules, obeying laws, and avoidance of victimization). Practical skills:This involves activities of daily living (eating, transfer/mobility, toileting, dressing etc), occupational skills, maintaining safe environments, and instrumental activities of daily living (meal preparation, housekeeping, transportation, taking medication, money management, and telephone use). Manifest before age of 18: Intellectual disability can only manifest from a life span of zero to eighteen years (0-18) (thedevelopmental period) which suggests that after attaining the age of 18 (the cut-off point), one’s brain is fully developed and nothing can retards its development. Psychological or psychotic problems are not intellectual disability even though; persons with intellectual disability can show traces of these behaviours.
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