Hist. 172-MidtermGuide-Spring 2013

1453 the conquest of constantinople by mehmet ii the

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1453 – the Conquest of Constantinople by Mehmet II, the Conqueror. This brought about an end to the Byzantine Empire as well as establishing – for real this time – the Ottoman Empire as a world power.
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Mehmed the Conqueror – (r. 1444-1481) Ottoman emperor who was unpopular at the time for his centralization of the empire and codification of fratricide. However, he established the empire for real, and conquered Constantinople in 1453. He was a European/Islamic ruler who spoke several languages, and represented a Cosmopolitan ideal. He was the first to go by Kaizer, which means Caesar because the Ottomans saw themselves as successors to the Byzantines. Selim the Grim – (r. 1512-1520) Ottoman sultan. He annexed the entire Arab-speaking Middle East into the empire. He justified this expansion as uniting the Arab speaking lands? Despite Ghaza stance on not fighting fellow Muslims. As the Shia Safavids rose to power in Iran, the Ottomans became more Sunni. They viewed themselves as champions and protectors of Sunni Islam and Sharia. They persecuted the Kizilbash (Alevi-Bektashi), and viewed it as “symbolic” acts of persecution against the “heretics.” In 1514 Selim fought at the Battle of Chaldiran, and defeated the Safavids. Between 1516 and 1517, at the Battles of Marj Dabik and Ridaniyya, he conquered the Mamluk territories of Syria, Egypt, and Hijaz. Battle of Chaldiran, 1514 – (1514) victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire of Iran. As a result, the Ottomans gained immediate control over eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq. At Chaldiran, the Ottomans had a larger, better-equipped army numbering 60,000 to 200,000, while the Kizilbash Turcomans numbered some 40,000 to 80,000. Shah Ismail I, who was wounded and almost captured in the battle, retired to his palace and withdrew from government administration after his wives were captured by Selim I, with at least one married off to one of Selim's statesmen. The battle is one of major historical importance because it not only negated the idea that the Murshid of the Shia-Qizilbash was infallible, but it also fully defined the Ottoman-Safavid borders and led Kurdish chiefs to assert their authority and switch their allegiance from the Safavids to the Ottomans. Battles of Marj Dabik and Ridaniyya, 1516-17 – Battles won by Selim the Grim, where he conquered the Mamluk territories of Syria, Egypt, and Hijaz. At this point the Ottoman Empire had many big cities, including the two holy cities of Hijaz. the Kizilbash (the Alevi-Bektashi Communities) – Supporters of Shah Isma’il. They lived in the border areas and were under the reign of the sultan. They were Turko-Mongol peasants and nomads, thus tribal Sufis (heterodox Dervishes). They represented groups who were disappointed with the Ottoman’s centralizing imperial structure. They also had a pacifist temperament. They are the forefathers of the Alevi-Bektashis today. The name means “redhead,” based on the red headware they would wear, and signifies their historical attachment to the Safavids. The name Kizilbash became derogatory because of their rebellions against the Ottomans, and meant “heretical rebels.” They changed their name to Alevi because they are followers of ‘Ali.
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