Furthermore, how often something is mentioned isn’t always a sign of its impor- tance to the research. However, tabulation can keep researchers honest, serving as a counterweight to any biases. In other words, if a researcher assumes a category is important but it’s only mentioned a handful of times, it can’t be argued that that category will be central to the decision process later. Tabulation can also be used to identify co-occurring themes. Step 2: Data Display Tables, figures, diagrams, and matrices are helpful in summarizing data: They compact larger amounts of text and quickly convey ideas in a visually organized way. Exhibits 9.6, 9.7, and 9.8 in your textbook provide examples. Step 3: Conclusion Drawing/Verification During this step, the project is checked for common biases and other threats to drawing a credible conclusion, which are listed in Exhibit 9.9. The researchers must establish credi- bility at this stage as well. Credibility is the degree to which the research can be trusted. As you may have guessed by now, a credible research study is both reliable and valid. Emic validity means that the research results make sense to the people who were being studied; this is a form of member checking. Cross-researcher reliability results when the same coding is used by different researchers. But what complicates qualitative data analysis is the fact that no absolute, “correct” way to interpret data exists. So how can the data be either valid or reliable? Triangulation helps lend credibility to qualitative research. This is the act of checking the analysis against multiple perspectives, including different data collection methods, different data sets, previous time periods, other researchers, and so on. Having other qualitative researchers look over the analysis, or provide a peer review, also bolsters the credibility. Writing the Report When writing about the research findings, researchers need to remember that nonre - searchers or those who otherwise weren’t involved with the study are likely the ones who will read the report. Therefore, the study should be well explained and organized into three main sections: 1. An introduction, which includes details about the research problem and objectives as well as the methodology that was used
© PENN FOSTER, INC. 2017 PAGE 45 MARKETING RESEARCH Lesson 4 2. Analysis of the data and findings, which explains the results of the study and includes secondary data to support claims, data displays to summarize and clar- ify ideas, and verbatims, or quotes from respondents that underscore important information 3. Conclusions and recommendations, a section in which the researcher summarizes the main points and provides some next-step suggestions Self-Check 4.1 Complete Review Questions 1–9 and Discussion Questions 1 and 4 at the end of Chapter 9 in your textbook.
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