Isospora enteritis another acute form of diarrhea for

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Isospora enteritis - Another acute form of diarrhea for more than one month caused by a coccidium parasite that occurs rarely in healthy adults. Fungal Infections Cryptococcal meningitis - An infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and the spinal cord, caused by a fungus Cryptococcus neoformans . This type of meningitis with headache, blurring vision, confusion, depression, agitation or inappropriate speech may be fatal. This usually occurs in patients with a CD4 count less than 200. Oral and esophageal candidiasis - A yeast infection of the mouth and esophagus, common in AIDS patients, characterized by white patches, reddened mucous membranes and some discomfort in chewing and swallowing. Disseminated histoplasmosis - A rare disease mainly caused by inhaling spores from soil contaminated by bats, chickens, starlings, or other animals that carry histoplasma species. The histoplasma fungus causes lesions in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, lining of the brain and spinal cord, adrenal glands and bone marrow. 9
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Bacterial/Viral Infections Disseminated mycobacterium avium - (MAI or MAC) This bacterial infection, causing chronic acute lung diseases, was uncommon in humans before AIDS. It is caused by a different species of the same bacteria that causes tuberculosis. This usually occurs in patients with CD4 count less than 100 and infects the blood stream causing high fevers, diarrhea and painful swollen lymph nodes. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis - the causal agent of classic TB which can also infect any organ system. Chronic mycocutaneous herpes simplex - An ulcerative disease of the mucus membranes (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina) caused by a herpes virus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of organs other than lymph nodes and liver - An infection by a virus related to the herpes family that produce mild flu-like symptoms, including aching, fever, mild sore throat, weakness and enlarged lymph nodes. In persons whose immune systems are impaired, the symptoms may be far more severe, resulting in hepatitis, mononucleosis, pneumonia or retinitis (eye). This occurs in patients with a CD4 count less than 50. B. Cancers Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) - Before the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, KS was a cancer found rarely in persons under 60 years of age. It is caused by a herpes virus, KSHV. With KS, tumors usually appear in the walls of the blood vessels, causing painless purple spots to appear on the skin. The tumors may also grow on the internal organs and death usually occurs when the major organs become involved. Persons over 60 years of age with KS who test positive for HIV could also have AIDS. Primary brain lymphoma - A malignant tumor of the lymphoid tissue on the brain. Diffuse, Undifferentiated, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (DUNHL) - A malignant tumor of the lymphoid tissue of the central nervous system. DUNHL patients exhibit swollen, firm and possibly tender lymph glands and enlarged spleens. This type of cancer is usually fatal. (AIDS Course 2009 syllabus draft.doc) 10
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  • Spring '09
  • Strauss

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