Endocrine system help the body resist stress by

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Endocrine System Help the body resist stress by: Keeping blood sugar levels relatively constant Maintaining blood volume and preventing water shift into tissue Cortisol provokes: Gluconeogenesis (formation of glucose from noncarbohydrates) Rises in blood glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids Excessive levels of glucocorticoids: Depress cartilage and bone formation Inhibit inflammation Depress the immune system Promote changes in cardiovascular, neural, and gastrointestinal function Gonadocorticoids (Sex Hormones) Most gonadocorticoids secreted are androgens (male sex hormones), and the most important one is testosterone Androgens contribute to: The onset of puberty The appearance of secondary sex characteristics Sex drive in females Androgens can be converted into estrogens after menopause Adrenal Medulla Made up of chromaffin cells that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine Secretion of these hormones causes: Blood glucose levels to rise Blood vessels to constrict The heart to beat faster Blood to be diverted to the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle Epinephrine is the more potent stimulator of the heart and metabolic activities Norepinephrine is more influential on peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure Pancreas
Endocrine System A triangular gland, which has both exocrine and endocrine cells, located behind the stomach Acinar cells produce an enzyme-rich juice used for digestion (exocrine product) Pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) produce hormones (endocrine products) The islets contain two major cell types: Alpha () cells that produce glucagon Beta () cells that produce insulin Glucagon A 29-amino-acid polypeptide hormone that is a potent hyperglycemic agent Its major target is the liver, where it promotes: Glycogenolysis – the breakdown of glycogen to glucose Gluconeogenesis – synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates Release of glucose to the blood from liver cells Insulin A 51-amino-acid protein consisting of two amino acid chains linked by disulfide bonds Synthesized as part of proinsulin and then excised by enzymes, releasing functional insulin Insulin: Lowers blood glucose levels Enhances transport of glucose into body cells Counters metabolic activity that would enhance blood glucose levels Effects of Insulin Binding The insulin receptor is a tyrosine kinase enzyme

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