Conceptual Skills These skills refer to the ability to think in abstract terms

Conceptual skills these skills refer to the ability

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Conceptual Skills. These skills refer to “the ability to think in abstract terms, to see how parts fit together to form the whole." A very basic requirement for effect ive implementation is a clear and well-expressed pre sentation of what must be done. A leader without sufficient conceptual skills will foil to achieve this BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP STYLES Those in positions of leadership exhibit a pattern of behavior that is unique and different from other patterns. This total pattern of behavior is called leadership style. There are several approaches used in classifying leadership styles. They are as follows: 1. According to the ways leaders approach people: to motivate them, 2. According to the way the leader uses power. 3. According to the leader's orientation towards task and people. Ways Leaders Approach People There are two ways, a leader may approach people to motivate them. They are: (1) positive leadership and (2) negative leadership.
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Figure 8.2 Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Styles When the leader's approach emphasizes rewards, [he style used is positive leadership. The reward may be economic, like an increase in monthly salary, or it may be noneconomic like membership in an advisory com mittee. When punishment is emphasized by the leader, the style is said to be negative leadership. The punishment may take the form of reprimand, suspension, or dismissal. Leaders, sometimes, alternately use positive and negative leadership depending on the characteristics of the individual subordinates. Ways Leaders Uses Power Leadership styles also vary according to how power is used. They are as follows: (1) autocratic, (2) participa tive, and (3) free-rein. BEHAVIORAL APPROACH positive leadership employee orientation task orientation autocratic free-rein participative
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Autocratic Leaders. Leaders who make decisions themselves, without consulting subordinates are called autocratic leaders. Motivation takes the form of threats, punishment, and intimidation of all kinds. The autocratic style is effective in emergencies and when absolute followership is needed. An example is a civil engineer in charge of constructing a temporary bridge over one that has been currently damaged. The disadvantages of autocratic leadership is that the leader “receives little, if any, information and ideas from his people as inputs into his decision-making." Participative Leaders. When a leader openly invites his subordinates to participate or share in decisions, policy-making and operation methods, he is said to be a participative leader. The advantage of participative leadership is that it generates a lot, of good ideas. Another advantage is the increased support for decisions and the reduction of the chance that they will be unexpectedly undermined.
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