D. U.S. declared war on Britain in June, 1812 -- Representatives from pro-British New England as well as the mid-Atlantic states opposed the war. E. Why did U.S. fight Britain when France had also assaulted American ships? 1. War Hawks pushed Madison toward war 2. Traditional Republican (Jeffersonian) partiality toward France 3. Visibility of British impressments and arming of Amerindians. 4. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair 5. Lure of conquering British Canada: timber, fishing, fur trade. Use space below for notes:
F. Resentful New Englanders hindered the U.S. war effort. 1. Believed British actions were exaggerated; still disliked France 2. New England merchants were still profitable before the war. 3. Opposed acquisition of Canada which would add agrarian states (Jeffersonian). 4. New England investors probably lent more money to Britain than to U.S. 5. New England farmers sent huge quantities of supplies and foodstuffs to Canada, helping Britain to invade New York. 6. New England states refused to permit their militias to serve outside their states. II. War of 1812 A. Overview 1. Small war -- 6,000 Americans killed or wounded -- Mostly Canadians fought Americans, very few British. 2. One of America's most poorly-fought wars on land. a. Nation militarily unprepared for war b. Attack on Canada a complete failure. c. Washington, D.C., burned by British d. British nearly won large territories in the New York and New England. 3. National disunity: Federalists undermined war effort (Hartford Convention, 1814) 4. American victories a. U.S. Navy out performed the Royal Navy on the Great Lakes b. Andrew Jackson emerged as a national hero for defending New Orleans (later elected president) c. William H. Harrison a hero (later, also elected president). 5. War ended in a stalemate 6. America gained respect diplomatically and militarily -- Later dubbed "Second War for Independence" 7. Fall of the Federalists: Reduction of sectionalism 8. Large Amerindian losses during war. -- Lost vast areas of forested land north of the Ohio River. 9. US industry stimulated by less dependence on British goods B. The U.S. was unprepared for a major war 1. Economy hurt by the Embargo Act and non-intercourse 2. Charter for National Bank expired in 1811, at a time when it was needed. 3. Regular army inadequate; supplemented by poorly trained militia. 4. Britain possessed the best navy in the world. a. British blockaded U.S. Atlantic ports for most of the war which hurt U.S. shipping and caused significant opposition to Use space below for notes:
the war. b. Jefferson’s "mosquito fleet" was inadequate. C. U.S. attack on Canada was a strategic failure 1. Americans falsely believed Canadians would easily crumble. -- 80% of Canadians in Ontario were post-Revolution Loyalists. 2. If U.S. had concentrated on Montreal, Canada would have fallen D. Fight for the Great Lakes 1. British navy couldn't penetrate past Niagara Falls; naval arms race resulted in Great Lakes. 2. Oliver Hazard Perry built a fleet of ships on the shores of Lake Erie in 1813.