4 effected invention from nothing indirect object 1

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4. EFFECTED: Invention from nothing ********************************************************************** Indirect Object 1. RECIPIENT: Receives something (STH) 2. AFFECTED: With verbs like ((Give, Owe, and Pay)) when the OD is effected. ------------------------------------------------------- OBJECT COMPLEMENT 1. Resulting attribute. 2. Current attribute.
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12 ********************************************** 7.18 Concord -The most important concord in English is that of the number. If the subject is plural, then the verb is plural vice versa. If the subject is "clause" or a prepositional phrase, the verb will be singular. - E.G: 1-How they got there does not concern me. 2- After the exam is the time to relax. -If the subject is a nominal relative clause then the verb may be either singular or plural. It depends on the reference of the nominal clause. - E.G: What was once human dwellings are now nothing? -There are nouns which end with (-s) but treated as singular, and there are nouns which do not end with (-s) but treated as plural. - E.G. 1- Measles is sometimes serious. 2- People are complaining. NOTE *Names, titles and quotations are treated as singular even if they are plural. E.g: Hard Times is a very popular novel. ********************************************************************** 7.19 Notional Concord Q/ Define Notional Concord and give examples?
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13 A/ It is an agreement of the verb with subject according to the idea of the number of the subject rather than the actual presence of a grammatical marker for that idea. E.g: The (government) (have) broken (their) promises. Q/ Define the principle of "proximity" and give an example? A/ It is an agreement of the verb with whatever noun or pronoun closely precedes it. E.g: One in ten take drug. ********************************************************************** 7.20 Collective Nouns *With collective nouns, we use plural verbs depending on the idea "notional Concord". E.g: The public is tired of demonstration. *Sometimes we use a singular verb if we regard it as one entity. ********************************************************************** 7.21 Coordinated Subject * We Have To Distinguish Between Two Things: 1. Non-Appositional coordination: It means the phrase is a reduction of two clauses, therefore, it requires plural verb E.g: Tom and Mary are ready ( Tom is ready and Mary is ready ) * If the two things refer to one entity, a singular verb is used. E.g: The hammer and sickle WAS flying the flag. 2- Appositional coordination: It means there is no reduction possible and we use a singular verb.
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14 E.g: This temple of ugliness and memorial to Victorian bad taste was erected at the Queen's express wish ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7.22 Note *If we have coordinated modifiers with one single noun, we use a plural verb. E.g: Good and bad taste are inculcated by example. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 7.23 *with either .... or, we use the principle of proximity , but with neither .... nor, we use plural verb or singular as the proximity rule demands . E.g: either your eyesight of brakes are at fault. E.g: neither he nor his wife has arrived. *we use the principle of proximity with. "More Than" E.g: More than a thousand inhabitants have signed. E.g: More than one person has protested. ***************************************************************************** ******************* 7.24
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15 Indefinite Expressions of Amount When we have "none" and "neither" to come alone, we can use both singular and plural verbs, but if we use "none of them "or "neither of them", a plural verb is favored.
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