The state comprises a wide range of institutions that implements and operationalise government policy. The institutions of the state include government agencies (the public sector), independent statutory authorities and quasi-governmental organisations. The state consist of institutions that exercises authority over citizens in a specific area or region. As such the state consists of agencies and institutions that gather taxes, distribute welfare and other assistance, enforce and apply law, and defend the country as well as administer government policy more generally. 6 02/16/17
5–7 Difference between ‘ state’ & ‘ Government ’ Government refers to a political or ruling administration of state or territory or country A government is an institution that makes and enforces public policies for and on a society. However, in order for a government to make and enforce its public policies, it must have something we call power. Governments are the means through which state power is employed. Every state has 3 kinds of power: Legislative Power, Executive Power and Judicial Power It is common to use the term ‘state’ rather than ‘government’ to describe the wide variety of institutions that regulate employment relations.
Contrasting Roles of the State Statism – State control over major elements of employee relations – China, Eastern Europe (in past), Singapore(?) Corporatist/Neo-Corporatist/Bargained Corporatist (tripartite arrangements – shared decision-making) Scandinavia, Netherlands, Austria, Ireland, Denmark Liberal Collectivism – State support for free CB and for trade unions (Voluntarism in C20th Britain) Market Individualism – free market model (Thatcher 1980s) support for managerial prerogative, constraints on market imperfections (e.g trade unions)
Ideology Areas of Concern and Activity The State Market Regulation Social Justice Industrial Conflict Laissez- Faire Corporatism Market Individualism Bargained Corporatism State Corporatism Liberal Collectivism Statism Trade Union Power
Three arms of the state The constitution of a country divides the functions of a state into three parts Fiji Constitution (Amendment) Act 1997 Three arms of the State: Legislative (legislature) Executive (executor) Judiciary (judicial system) 10 02/16/17
Three arms of the state The power and authority of the state is thus exercised through these three institutions, and therefore, by necessity the state becomes involved in the creation, administration and enforcement of various laws relating to industrial/employment relations. 11 02/16/17
Three arms of the state: The legislature The legislature is a law –making body comprising representatives elected by the people at periodic elections according to rules usually embodied in a nation’s constitution.
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- Spring '19