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Ethical considerations in experimental design

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Ethical considerations in experimental design-Randomized clinical trialsuse one control and at least one experimental group to testeffects of a new medication, a therapeutic approach, or apparatus as treatment for amedical or mental illness-Research studies that test efficacy of new drugs pose risks to p’s – FDA requires newdrugs undergo several stages of testing, beginning w lab tests, etc. – takes a long timeoBc of lengthy processes, argue for modified experimental design to eval benefitsof new and potentially lifesaving drugsoEx. Health advocates who challenged use of control groups in pre-postteststudies of new HIV/AIDS drugs contend control group p’s experience a delay inreceiving potentially lifesaving drug-Researchers must ensure that the new drugs r effective, r safe, and don’t cause life-threatening complications; time needed to complete all testing procedures delaysdistribution of potentially lifesaving drugs-One way to address ethical dilemma thro apre-post-post-test design– both exp andcontrol groups would receive actual treatment, not at the same time-Experimental and control get the drug = intervention – experimental A group and exp Bget pretest at the same timeoExp group gets intervention drug first, control is delayedoSecond posttest admin after delayed intervention-By using pre-post-posttest design, ensure both groups get drug, but w minimal delay inadministering drug to control group, researchers can still conduct drug vs no drugcomparison to test drug’s safety and effectivenessQuasi-exp intervention studies-Adjusts for fact that researchers can’t always control each independent v-Inability to control some IV means that researchers aren’t able to demonstrate a directcause-and-effect rel btw IV and DV or outcomes-Don’t include control groups – may b unnecessary if researcher interested only in impactof an intervention on study p’s – p’s r assigned to same condition-Without control, researcher loses comparison of outcome of intervention to anothergroup – can’t claim cause-effect or generalize to larger pop’nTable 2.2Nonexperimental-Qualitative: explore phenomenon in context; minimal or no stat data; in depth analysisof response, but can’t examine cause – effect rels-Case: in-depth exploration of person, place, situation; minimal or no statistical data; in-depth exploration of rare/unique events, can’t examine cause-effect rel
-Focus groups: gather info, generate insight, explore decision making; minimal use ofdescriptive data; generate new info, interactive approach, can’t examine cause-effect rel-Corr studies: describe rel btw 2 v’s; pearson corr coefficient Range = -1.00 to +1.00; ID’srel btw 2 variables, can’t determine causal relExperimental-Exp: detect cause-effect rel btw v’s; central tendency, student’s t, analysis of variance,causal explanation of effects of one or more v’s on outcomes, direct control of causal v’s,not suitable of all studies-Intervention studies: measure effect of intervention, usually w pre-posttest format;

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Term
Spring
Professor
MustaqKhan

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