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Permits movement of substances within the cell and

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permits movement of substances within the cell and movement of external projections(cilia or microvilli; flagella in sperm) outside the plasma membranee.Filaments: collectively promote cell strength, shape, and movementi.actin filaments: (microfilaments): smaller fibrils that generally occur in bundles“wave of excitation” that may cause the spontaneous migration of cells.a major driver for many cell functions including cell movement,endocytosis, and maintenance of cell and tissue shapelink the interior of the cell to adjacent cells through cell junctions.necessary for regulating cell growth and drive the pinching of one cellinto twoCellular locomotion depends on contractile properties that involve bothmicrotubules and actin filamentsii.microtubules: small, hollow, cylindrical, unbranched tubules made of proteinexhibit rigidity to add strength to the cell's structuresupport and move organelles from one part of the cytoplasm to anotherfacilitate transport of impulses along nerve cellsroles in the inflammatory and immune responses and hormonesecretioninvolved in the external movement, or motility, of some cells.cilia and (eukaryotic) flagella move as a result of microtubules slidingalong each other
Microtubules involved in cellular division are arranged in a centriole.During division, the pairs of centrioles split and migrate to oppositepoles of the cell.iii.intermediate filaments : braided, ropelike fibers made of several filamentproteins.The different filaments form a mesh called the nuclear lamina beneaththe inner nuclear membrane, creating a protective chamber for thecell's DNAOthers crisscross the cytoplasm, promoting mechanical strength.In epithelial tissue these filaments bridge the cytoplasm from one celljunction to another, supporting and strengthening the sheet ofepitheliumf.Mechanotransduction: the cellular processes that translate mechanical stimuli intobiochemical signals, allowing cells to adapt to their surroundings.i.These cell adaptations are associated with several alterations and diseasesincluding loss of hearing, CV disease, muscular dystrophy, and cancerVI.Caveolae Tiny indentations (caves)a.Functions: capture extracellular material and shuttle it inside the cell or across the cell.VII.Vaults Cytoplasmic ribonucleoproteinsa.Functions: act as “trucks,” shuttling molecules from nucleus to elsewhere in cell.Plasma Membrane: surround the cell or enclose an intracellular organellesI.Functionsa.control the composition of the cell by allowing or exclude various molecules , whichgreatly influences the metabolic pathwaysb.contain selective transport systems that allow them to move molecules in or out of thespace, which greatly influence the metabolic pathwaysc.Cell polarity, the direction of cellular transport, maintains normal cell and tissuestructure for numerous functions, most importantly transport of nutrients in and out ofthe cell, and becomes altered with diseases such as cancerd.Cell to-cell recognitione.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Ann
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